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Bioleaching process

Bioleaching as a process is the dissolution of metals from their mineral source using certain naturally occurring microorganisms or the use of microorganisms to transform metal elements so that the elements can be extracted when water is filtered through it (Mishra et al., 2005). It has been used to dissolve metals such as nickel.

Bioleaching (or biomining) is a process in mining and biohydrometallurgy (natural processes of interactions between microbes and minerals) that extracts valuable metals from a low-grade ore with the help of microorganisms such as bacteria or archaea Bioleaching: Introduction, Methods, Application, Copper, Microorganisms, and Processes! Introduction to Bioleaching: Leaching process was first observed in pumps and pipelines installed in mine pits containing acid water. This process was later on employed for recovering metals from ores containing low quantity of the metal. Presently certain metals from sulfide ores and other ores are. Bioleaching is the use of bacterial microorganisms to extract precious metals, such as gold, from ore in which it is embedded. As an alternative to smelting or roasting, miners use bioleaching when there are lower concentrations of metal in ore and they need an efficient, environmentally responsible method to extract it Since bioleaching works in the absence of direct heat, there are no arsenic trioxide (As203) gases produced through the process. In fact, bioleaching can treat concentrates with much higher levels of arsenic than what would be allowed using a pyrometallurgical process The process can be used on ores that are only 0.5 to one percent copper, too little for conventional refining. The solution is then drained in to an electrolytic cell and copper extracted from it. In addition, studies show that zinc, nickel and cobalt can also largely be extracted by the process of bioleaching (Rawlings, Douglas, and Johnson 2007)

Bioleaching - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

  1. The present review describes the historical development and mechanisms of bioleaching. Recent development has shown commercial application of the process and, concurrently, details pertaining to.
  2. Bioleaching Certain bacteria can break down low-grade ores to produce an acidic solution containing copper ions. The solution is called a leachate and the process is called bioleaching
  3. Bioleaching is an energy-efficient way of producing nickel, for example. On the whole, the greenhouse gas emissions of the nickel production process are around 40%, sulphur dioxide emissions 2% and energy consumption 20% lower than average

Bioleaching 1. DEFINITION OF BIOLEACHING MICROORGANISMS USED IN BIOLEACHING CHEMISTRY OF BIOLEACHING TYPES EXAMPLES 1. COPPER LEACHING 2. URANIUM LEACHING 3. GOLD AND SILVER LEACHING 4. SILICA LEACHING 2. Bioleaching is the process by which metals are dissolved from ore bearing rocks using microorganisms. 3 Bioleaching is performed mostly by iron and sulfide oxidizing bacteria, or acid producing fungus. Some of the types of bacteria used in this process include Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, and some species of sulfolobus, acidianus, and sulfobacillus Bioleaching process is economical and simple 2. The effluent generated is eco-friendly and has pose no threat to the environment 3. It is a low energy consuming process as it does not require high temperature and pressure 4. Bioleaching process is capable of treating low grade ores 5

The solubilization process is called bioleaching and occurs in nature wherever suitable conditions are found for the growth of the ubiquitous bioleaching microorganisms. 2 Microorganisms 2.1 Thiobacillus. The bacteria most active in bioleaching belong to the genus Thiobacillus. These are Gram-negative, non-spore forming rods which grow under. The present review describes the historical development and mechanisms of bioleaching. Recent development has shown commercial application of the process and, concurrently, details pertaining to the key microorganisms involved in these processes have been described. Bioleaching of metal sulfides is caused by diverse groups of bacteria. The dissolution biochemistry signifies two types of. • Bioleaching is a process based on the ability of microorganism to transform solid compounds into soluble and extractable elements, which can be recovered. 7. History The role of bacteria in bioleaching was found in 1947. In 1950 copper dump leaching was found. First industrial gold bioleaching plant in 1980. 7 8 Bioleaching. The BioHeap process is a form of bioleaching. Traditionally, this is carried out by naturally occurring micro organisms, usually thermophiles, which are micro organisms usually found in acidic environments produced by the oxidation of sulphur - for example in and around hot springs, volcanic regions and sulphide-rich areas.. ARTIFICIAL BIOLEACHING: As we know that natural bioleaching is a very slow process to be used at commercial levels, artificial bioleaching i.e. bio-mining is preferred which is actually microbial biomining with a modified environment.Artificial biomining is a hydrometallurgical operation based on chemical engineering, molecular and microbiology biology

Bioleaching (Biomining) Advantages, Process & More Anglo

Bioleaching is a recycling technique that uses bacteria to recover some metals from mineral processing waste or used electronic equipment.In this video, disc.. Bioleaching is used today in commercial operations to process ores of copper, nickel, cobalt, zinc and uranium, whereas, biooxidation is used in gold processing and coal desulfurization. Bioleaching involves the use of microorganisms to catalyze the oxidation of iron sulfides to create ferric sulfate and sulfuric acid Learn the basics about future extraction methods including bioleaching and phytomining. This is a part of the overall environmental chemistry topic.SUBSCRIBE.. 1. Bioleaching: Bioleaching is the process by which metals are dissolved from ore bearing rocks using microorganisms. •Bioleaching is also called microbial leaching. 2. Biooxidation: Biooxidation is a process by which the recovery of a metal is enhanced by microbial decomposition of the mineral, but the target metal is not necessarily. The lithium extraction was the highest using bacteria, however very long time was necessary for the process. The mechanisms of bioleaching by fungi and yeast differs from bacterial bioleaching.

When the metal of interest is directly dissolved, the biomining process is called bioleaching, and when the metal of interest is made more accessible or enriched in the material left behind, it is called biooxidation. Both processes involve microbial reactions that can happen anywhere the microbes, rocks, and necessary. Bioleaching process through measuring process growth and oxalic acid production was effective on the 8th day. Chemical analysis showed that bioleaching process using selected indigenous PSM of phosphate rock was able to increase P2O5 content from 38.40 to 49.70% or improve around 11.30% Bioleaching process. Bioleaching experiments were performed at 30°C and 180 rpm in 1 L shaking flasks. Modified 9k medium containing 1% pyrite and 1% pyrolusite instead of ferrous sulfate was used in the reaction system in a 600 ml volume. Ore was ground to 100 mesh size and sterilized at 121°C for 30 min under nitrogen conditions parameters influencing bioleaching such as pH, temperature, pulp density, bacterial growth, particle size, etc. A. ferrooxidans is a well- known bacterium in the bioleaching process; extensively used to recover basic metals from different solid wastes and ores [10]. The ability of A. ferrooxidans for recovery of basic metals such as Cu, Zn

The bioleaching tests is carried out in 250 ml Erlenmayer flasks, each contained about 220 ml pulp. The pulps is aerated with air bubbling at one liter per minute air flow rate, and is continuously agitated with a magnetic stirrer while the temperature was kept at 30 degrees C. The bioleaching tests should be started at pH 2.0 The Company behind this bioleaching method and process no long exist but the technology still did work: Before implementing a commercial-scale GEOCOAT® or GEOLEACH™ plant at Owner's site, batch amenability, small column, and large column testwork will be completed to determine the operational and cost benefits of the process for bioleaching the specific ore or concentrate Bioleaching is the process of using certain microbial bacteria in order to liberate a metal from ore. This process has been applied to copper and uranium ore for many years, but has more recently been applied to certain types of gold containing ore. Bioleaching of gold can be performed using a number of different techniques and various microbes. The biometallurgical process is usually referred as bioleaching. Bioleaching is a promising technology which utilizes microorganisms to recover metals from low-grade ores and e-waste (Hong and Valix 2014). Benefiting from lower operational cost and energy requirements in metal recovery, bioleaching has drawn more and more attention After the bioleaching process, twofold bonds broke and some of the functional group changed. By doing bioleaching O-H, COO, C-O, O-H, N-H and C-Cl stretches were produced [31-35]. The wavelength of the most peak of the spectrum at parts (a) and (b) are near to each other but the transmittance is far

Bioleaching is a simple process with low cost technology. 6. It is ideally suited for the developing countries. The major limitation or disadvantage of bioleaching is the slowness of the biological process. This problem can, however, be solved by undertaking an in depth research to make the process faster, besides increasing the efficiency.. Although bioleaching is indicated as a promising technology to remove metals from electronic scrap and waste PCBs, its application for metal recovery from PCB wastewater sludge is still very limited. The purpose of this study was to develop a thermophilic bioleaching process operated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) to recover heavy metals. This work reports a kinetic study of the bioleaching process for Cu extraction from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs), using iron as an oxidant agent. The kinetic study considered both the Fe2+ oxidation by bacteria metabolism and the chemical reaction between Fe3+ and Cu within WPCBs. The model was composed of a system of three differential equations characterized by three dependent. Chalcopyrite bioleaching in stirred tanks is on the verge of commercialization. Commercial applications of biohydrometallurgy have advanced due to favorable process economics and, in some cases.

Bioleaching: Introduction, Methods, Application, Copper

The microbial bioleaching process can be optimized by creating ideal conditions— temperature, pH, and nutrient, O2, and CO2 supply, etc. A diagrammatic representation of the general bioleaching process is depicted in Fig. 32.1. The desired microorganisms with nutrients, acid, etc., are pumped into the ore bed.. Bioleaching is leaching where the extraction of metal from solid minerals into a solution is facilitated by the metabolism of certain microbes - bioleaching microbes.Bioleaching is a process described as the use of microorganisms to transform elements so that the elements can be extracted from a material when water is filtered trough it Key Terms. ore leaching: The process of recovering metals from ores by using a number of different techniques.; Microbial ore leaching (bioleaching) is the process of extracting metals from ores with the use of microorganisms. This method is used to recover many different precious metals like copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and nickel

What is Bioleaching? (with pictures

bioleaching process than refined glucose. Analyses suggested that a corn stover-based bioleaching plant would have 22% lower total costs than a potato wastewater-based plant, and a potato wastewater-based plant should have 17% lower total costs compared to a glucose-based plant. An environmental life cycl ferroxidans in bioleaching process. It is an autotrophic bacterium which produces sulphuric acid and facillitates the growth of other metal leaching species. Mechanisms A generalised reaction can be used to express the biological oxidation of a mineral sulphide involved in leaching The bioleaching process is optimized such that maximum biomass concentration is obtained for efficient and commercially viable metal recovery. The results are divided into four sections, each addressing an important issue of the recycling process mechanism. The generated model is found to have good stability and accurate process mechanism. Microbial Leaching (Bioleaching, Biomining) Microbial leaching is the process by which metals are dissolved from ore bearing rocks using microorganisms. For the last 10 centuries, microorganisms have assisted in the recovery of copper dissolved in drainage from water

Commercial Process of Bioleaching The naturally occurring bioleaching process is a very slow process. For commercial extraction of metals by bioleaching the process is optimized by controlling the temperature, pH, humidity, O2 & CO2 concentration etc. The appropriate microorganisms along with nutrients and acids are pumped in to the ore bed and. The adopted method was a two-step bioleaching process, where the electronic waste was added after the growth phase of the bacteria. The growth curve of A. ferrooxidans has been characterised elsewhere [21, 33] by cell counting. In the first 2 to 4 days following inoculation, the bacterial population increased exponentially during the log phase.

BIOLEACHIN

An acid-producing bacterium, identified as Acetobacter sp., was isolated from RM impoundment and used in the bioleaching experiments under one-step, two-step and spent medium process at up to 10% pulp density. The results showed that the leaching ratios of Al, Lu, Y, Sc, and Th were 55%, 53%, 61%, 52%, and 53% respectively under one-step. Biotechnology Economic geology Metallurgical processes Applied microbiology. Biomining is the process of using microorganisms microbes to extract metals of economic interest from rock ores or mine waste. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Heap or dump bioleaching, tank bioleaching, in situ or in place bioleaching Result showed that after direct bioleaching process, maximum recovery of valuable metal 24.94%, 7.42%, 1.09%, 3.51%, 4.87% and 1.66% were achieved for aluminum, calcium, iron, copper, silver and platinum respectively at 2% pulp density. Overall data shows that metal recovery at pulp density 2% are higher than 4% pulp density

Mission 2015: Bioleachin

(PDF) Bioleaching: A microbial process of metal recovery

During the bioleaching process, many key factors are uncontrolled—including fluid flow, bacteria proliferation, temperature distribution, and gas transportation—causing out-off-balance of copper extraction in different areas of heaps. To avoid this lower permeability, bacteria culture and efficiency limit efficient and high-volume metal. An oxidation process caused by microbes where the valuable metal remains (but becomes enriched) in the solid phase. Biooxidation leaves the metal values in the solid phase and the solution may be discarded. This contrasts with bioleaching where the valuable metal is solubilized. (Both bioleaching and biooxidation are oxidation processes)

Bioleaching corresponds to the microbial-catalyzed process of conversion of insoluble metals into soluble forms. As an applied biotechnology globally used, it represents an extremely interesting field of research where omics techniques can be applied in terms of knowledge development, but moreover in terms of process design, control, and optimization The data indicate sophisticated microbial interactions during the bioleaching process and provide a basis for a strategy to improve bioleaching in practice. Saavedra et al. show that a suitable amount of galactose can promote EPS production by At. ferrooxidans and, thus, increase the microbial tolerance to ferric ions A process for leaching an ore that contains nickel and magnesium includes mixing a microorganism that is capable of producing an organic acid, a nutrient, and an ore that contains nickel and magnesium for a period of time to dissolve the nickel and form a solution containing a nickel salt and a magnesium salt, separating the nickel from the magnesium in the salt solution Bioleaching treatments can significantly improve the dewaterability of sewage sludge. However, the exact mechanisms of the improvement of sludge dewaterability by bioleaching are as yet unclear. In this study, the variation of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content along with bound water content in sludge during bioleaching was.

Bioleaching

Excessive heavy metal ions in a bioleaching solution can negatively affect Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and consequently reduce the leaching rate. This work aims to verify the adsorption mechanisms of Rhodotorula sp. in collaborative bioleaching with A. ferrooxidans and Rhodotorula sp. and investigate the adsorption process with the competitive adsorption model CFD Simulation of concentration profiles and velocity field. Application: in bioleaching process 3 (.)+p++2 t ρμρ ∂ ∇=−∇+∇ ∂ u uu u g F (6) where u is the fluid velocity, p is the pressure, g is the gravity acceleration, and F stands for body forces. In the present work, the continuum surface forc A method for optimizing a bioleaching process, at least in respect of heat generation and primary copper sulphide leaching, by actively monitoring and controlling inorganic and organic compounds in a raffinate solution, produced in the process, to levels below that which could be inhibitory to microbial activity of bioleaching strains used in the process Microbes are key components of the structure and function of bioleaching process. Increasing consciousness of the role of microbes has led to a quick growth of descriptive and investigational studies of their abundance and activities. However, the detail information of complex functional molecules contain in promising microbes which are very important for understanding microbial processes in. In the bioleaching system of high-fluorine uranium, the dissolution of fluorine must be considered, which is also affected by the parameters of the leaching process. In order to adapt the fluorine-containing system, the strain was domesticated under different fluoride level. In order to match the process parameters in the bioleaching of high-fluoride-bearing uranium ore, response surface.

To completely and deeply understand the functions of EPS in bioleaching of spent catalyst, the generation behavior of EPS at various pulp densities during bioleaching was characterized by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM), and its relevance with bioleaching performance and process parameters were analyzed using mathematical. Two bioleaching processes were performed: (i) One-step process: the MSW was incubated with the organism for 15 days; (ii) Two-step process: as decribed by [17]. the organism was pre-cultured for 7 days then the MSW was added and the experiment continued for another 7 days (total experiment time was 15 days) The accumulation of mine tailings on Earth is a serious environmental challenge. The importance for the recovery of heavy metals, together with the economic benefits of precious and base metals, is a strong incentive to develop sustainable methods to recover metals from tailings. Currently, researchers are attempting to improve the efficiency of metal recovery from tailings using bioleaching. REBgold's proprietary bioleaching process recovers valuable metals from crushed ore, neutralizes sulphides causing acid rock drainage and stabilizes toxic elements such as arsenic and cadmium. Here's how the process works: Crushed ore is delivered from a the crushing circuit to a flotation plant

Biological methods of metal extraction - Higher - Material

The bioleaching process can be fully integrated with downstream metals recovery processes. For example, solvent extraction and electrowinning (SX-EW) can be applied to produce LME A-grade copper cathode, and precipitation processes can be employed to produce metal intermediates (such as hydroxides, carbonates or sulfides) Bioleaching has been attracting attention in the recent years as an emerging sediment heavy metal pollution remediation technology. However, the use of sulfur powder as sulfur substrate causes the problem of post-acidification, and the free bioleaching functional bacteria which are susceptible to environmental impact during reactor operation cannot be used efficiently for multiple rounds Further refining the bioleaching process could improve that efficiency, resulting in greater profits, Thompson said. Other ways to improve the economics of a hypothetical bioleaching plant are to process a material with a higher percentage of REEs, or to process a material that contains a higher value REE, said Reed This study investigates the synergy of Rhizobium phaseoli and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in the bioleaching process of copper. The results showed that additional R. phaseoli could increase leaching rate and cell number of A. ferrooxidans . When the initial cell number ratio between A. ferrooxidans and R. phaseoli</i> was 2 : 1,<i> A. ferrooxidans</i> attained the highest. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) play important roles in regulating the dewaterability of sludge. This study sought to elucidate the influence of EPS on the dewaterability of sludge during bioleaching process. Results showed that, in bioleaching system with the co-inoculation of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TS6 and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5 (A. t+A. f system), the capillary.

Bioleaching: let&#39;s see how it works - YouTube

Production method

  1. eral concentrate. This is a simple process which can be done using microorganisms such as Mesophiles, moderately thermophilic bacteria, Extremophiles. Bioleaching is a part of Bioremediation
  2. Bioleaching processes are based on the ability of micro-organism (bacteria and fungi) to transform solid compounds in soluble and extractable elements, which can be recovered. Bioleaching represents a 'clean technology' process with low cost and less energy consumption as compared to conventional methods. The bioleaching allows the cycling of metals by a process close t
  3. eral processing technologies have developed [4,5]. This review focuses on the process of bioleaching, a con
  4. For this purpose, ekolive provides a bioleaching process for releasing metallics, metalloids and/or non-metallics and/or degrading organics out of any suitable carrier material, avoiding the need of aeration during the process, using mixtures of different natural microorganisms, in particular of heterotrophic autochthonous microorganisms and.
  5. ing industry during the process to extract and recover the heavy metals from insoluble ores. The involved biological transformations are governed by bio-oxidation, mainly mediated by two groups of chemolithoautotrophic and extremely acidophilic (meaning organisms thriving at pH values as low as.
  6. The findings of the present study concluded that Streptomyces albidoflavus TN10 is a promising candidate for bioleaching of heavy metals from the printed circuit board as an eco-friendly and cost-effective process

Bioleaching It utilises autotrophic and acidophilic microorganisms that can oxidise ferrous iron to ferric form, also oxidising sulphides to sulphuric acid. The iron and sulphur for this oxidation process are obtained from pyrite, an iron sulphide-based mineral that is abundantly found in many sulphide ore bodies Other PCBs were processed via the bioleaching method. Using the bioleaching method, the scientists were able to extract copper, lead and zinc. They were able to recover 92.85 percent of copper. While the maximum amounts of lead and zinc were recovered within 48 hours, it took 144 hours to extract that much copper, according to The Indian Express Biomining is the process of using microorganisms microbes to extract metals of economic interest from rock ores or mine waste. Electrochemical applications in metal bioleaching. Fundamental and Applied Aspects. Some past projects include in situ mining, bbioleaching, bioremediation, and bioleaching of ores

Bioleaching - SlideShar

bioleaching and biosorption [4]. Bioleaching is a process described as being the dissolution of metals from their minerals by certain naturally occurring microorganisms [5]. Biosorption is a physico-chemical process that occurs naturally in certain biomass which allows it to passively concentrate and bind contaminants onto it The bioleaching process can be represented by a stoichiometric equation (Acevedo, 1987; Acevedo and Gentina, 1989). In the case of a leaching organism such as Thiobacillus ferrooxidans growing in a simple defined culture media with ferrous iron as the energy source, the following equation can be written: 1 ⋅ CO2 + m ⋅ NH3 + n ⋅ FeSO4 + o. The process of extracting metals from ores or waste by using microorganisms to oxidize the metals, producing soluble compounds. 'copper has been the most common base metal extracted with bioleaching' Bioleaching is the biological conversion of an insoluble metal compound to a water soluble form. In the microbial leaching process At. Fundamental and Applied Aspects. Can we mitigate environmental impacts from mining? Effect of elevated pressure on ferric iron reduction coupled to sulfur oxidation by biomining microorganisms. Bioleaching Bioleaching is a simple and effective technology for metal extraction from low‐grade ores and mineral concentrates. Metal recovery from sulfide minerals is based on the activity of chemolithotrophic bacteria, mainly Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and T. thiooxidans, which convert insoluble metal sulfides into soluble metal sulfates.Non‐sulfide ores and minerals can be treated by heterotrophic.

Bioleaching Process - Mining Fundamental

  1. Bioleaching. Bioleaching uses microbiological processes naturally performed by bacteria to remove rare earth ions (Ibrahim 2011). The cost of this process is remarkably low, and recovery rates can be as high as 90%. The process is often dismissed as it is much slower than other refinement methods (approximately 30 days (Das) in comparison to.
  2. Generally, the process of bioleaching includes an initiating step in which ferric ions are used to oxidize the metal ore. Here, ferric ions are reduced to ferrous ions. This step does not involve microbes. Therefore, bacteria are used for further oxidation of the metal ore. There, bacteria are used to oxidize sulfur and iron in the metal ore
  3. erals is a process that allows the treatment of insoluble sulphides and insoluble oxides via hydrometallurgy, as opposed to the more traditional technology of pyrometallurgy. Bioleaching presents several technological, environmental and economic advantages as compared with pyrometallurgy, as well as some limitations

(PDF) Bioleaching: A Promising Method of Selective

Process for organic acid bioleaching of ore . United States Patent 6395061 . Abstract: A process for leaching an ore that contains nickel and magnesium includes mixing a microorganism that is capable of producing an organic acid, a nutrient, and an ore that contains nickel and magnesium for a period of time to dissolve the nickel and form a. However, the complete bioleaching process is complex and may involve microbial communities with different compositions and functions. During bioleaching, solid compounds in leaching heap (LH) are.

Application of Biohydrometallurgy to Copper Mining inEffect of Exogenous Galactose on EPS Production during

definition of bioleaching microorganisms used in bioleaching chemistry of bioleaching types examples copper leaching uranium leaching gold and silver leaching silica leaching DEFINITION OF BIOLEACHING Bioleaching is the process by which metals are dissolved from ore bearing rocks using microorganisms bioleaching process for the treatment of a low-grade nickel-copper sulphide concentrate. Hydrometallurgy Conference 2009, The Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 2009. Integrated piloting of a thermophilic bioleaching process for the treatment of a low-grade nickel During the bioleaching process, pH of the leaching medium was determined once a day by using a calibrated pH meter. At every 2-day interval, 5 mL samples from the leaching solution was collected and centrifuged for 20 min at 3000 rpm. Whatman filter paper was used to purify supernatant from the cells and debris To date, bioleaching is a process or technique that used microorganisms to extract metals from various ores and ores concentrates (Kim et.al. 2005). Besides that, it is now employed to treat industrial waste sludge which containing metals at high concentrations (Kim et.al. 2005). In addition, bioleaching of sewage sludge is necessary important before the land is used for agriculture activities.

Team:Heidelberg/Project/Delftibactin - 2013Heap Bioleaching Fundamentals - MINTEK | MINTEKMinerals | Free Full-Text | Insights into the SurfaceElectrochemical Process Engineering in

Background: Bioleaching of minerals is a process that allows the treatment of insoluble sulphides and insoluble oxides via hydrometallurgy, as opposed to the more traditional technology of pyrometallurgy. Bioleaching presents several technological, environmental and economic advantages as compared with pyrometallurgy, as well as some. In heap bioleaching process, an important parameter is the effective external area of the solid particles wetted by the leaching solution and colonized by bacteria cells. The use of immobilized particles is important to reduce volume of leaching solutions and to improve a uniform inoculation, but the bacteria cells must detach and colonize the. Bioleaching Process Mining Fundamentals. Bioleaching is performed mostly by iron and sulfide oxidizing bacteria, or acid producing fungus Some of the types of bacteria used in this process include Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, and some species of sulfolobus, acidianus, and sulfobacillu

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