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What is the price paid by consumers and the net price received by producers after the tax is paid

Solved: Using The Graph Below, What Is The Price Paid By C

Unit 2: Demand and Supply Flashcards Quizle

Microeconomics: Taxes HW7 Flashcards Quizle

b. The effect of the excise tax is illustrated in the diagram: a tax of $3,000 per truck puts a wedge between the price paid by consumers, or the demand price ($31,000), and the price received by producers, or the supply price ($28,000). The quantity bought and sold is 200,000 trucks. The foreign automaker receives $28,000 per truck (after tax). d d) Consumer price falls, producer price rises, and quantity increases. 12. Refer to the supply and demand diagram below. If an output (excise) tax of $5 per unit is introduced in this market, the price that consumers pay will equal ____ and the price that producers receive net of the tax will equal _____. a) $5; $10. b) $6; $11. c) $7; $12. d. This is the price that will be paid by customers while, when the tax of Re.1 per unit is deducted, the producers will receive a unit price of Rs.4.80. Thus, in this example, the tax has the effect of raising the price paid by consumers by Re.0.80 and lowering the price received by producers by Re.0.20 If a tax causes the supply curve to shift, we know that the tax is paid out of pocket by: a. consumers. b. producers. c. the government. d. both producers and consumers. e. consumer, producers, and the government. ____ 15. The incidence of a tax reflects: a. who pays the tax out of pocket. b. how much tax revenue the tax generates. c

Econ- Chapter 5 Flashcards - Quizle

After a tax is imposed, the price paid by consumers

  1. Price receives by the seller is the summation of the new equilibrium price and amount of subsidy per unit (PB+be 2 or ae 1). Subsidy by the government has created the difference between the price that buyers pay and sellers receive by the amount of subsidy. After subsidy to the producers, consumers pay fewer prices than before. Thus they are.
  2. a. What is the price paid by consumers post-tax? $1.20 per pound b. What is the price received by producers post-tax? $0.90 per pound c. What is the quantity of butter transacted? 9 million pounds d. How is the incidence of the tax allocated between consumers and producers? Show on the figure Consumers pay for $0.20 of the tax while.
  3. $\begingroup$ You have an object that costs $1.00 without any tax, meaning that the producers receive exactly $1.00. The government decides to impose a $0.08 tax on the object - after this imposition, the consumers pay $1.08, and the government receives $0.08 per good sold. However, the price received by firms is still $1.00
  4. And the after-tax price is: Substituting this back into the supply equation yields the new equilibrium quantity of output: In this case, the price received by consumers decreases, the price paid by consumers increases and the equilibrium quantity goes down

Taxes and subsidies change the price of goods and, as a result, the quantity consumed. There is a difference between an Ad valorem tax and a specific tax or subsidy in the way how it is applied on the price of the good. The final effect stays similar though. In the end levying a tax moves the market to a new equilibrium where the price of a good paid by buyers increases and the price received. to producers because of the higher price, but some producer surplus is lost because consumers purchase less. If demand is highly elastic, the reduction in purchases can offset the higher price producers receive, making producers worse off. In the diagram below, the market-clearing price and quantity are P 0 and Q 0. The minimum price is set at. The price paid by consumers is $54,000. The price received by producers is million. b. The price paid by consumers is now $53,000. The price received by producers is million. c. The government tax revenue rose as a result of the reduction in the excise tax. This occurs because the supply of and the demand for luxury automobiles are both highly.

Tax Incidence Microeconomic

c. The excise tax shifts supply vertically by $6. Thus, the new supply curve is S 1 and the equilibrium price increases to $12. The price paid by consumers is $12 per unit, while the amount received by producers is this $12 minus the per unit tax. Thus, producers receive $6 per unit. After the tax, the equilibrium quantity sold is 1 unit the tax burdens • Gross price: The price paid by or received by the party not paying the tax to the government (market price) • After-tax price: The price paid by or received by the party that is paying the tax to the government - Either lower by the tax if producers pay the tax - Or higher by the tax if consumers pay the ta 9 Tax Terms The Gross Price (P G) is the price paid by consumers. The Net Price ( P N ) is the price received by producers after the tax is paid. P N = P G - T 10 Figure 11.2 Impact of A Unit Tax on Market Equilibrium Price (Dollars) Gasoline per Year (Gallons) 0 Excess Burden Tax Revenue T = $0.25 S T = MSC + $0.25 ∆ Q Q* S = MSC D = MSB 1. tity traded in the market after tax. Find the price paid by consumers1 and price received by producers after tax. Show your results on a diagram As we discussed in the lecture, the tax will create discrepancy between the price paid by the consumers and price received by the producers equal to the amount of the per unit tax The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services. Indexes are available for the U.S. and various geographic areas. Average price data for select utility, automotive fuel, and food items are also available

  1. Whether the tax is described as being paid by the producer or by the consumer, the outcome is the same: The rise in the price to the buyer to Pc, the drop in the price to the seller to Pp, and the.
  2. In other words, the subsidy will cause the price received by producers (the producer price) to rise above the price paid by consumers (the consumer price). The new producer price is labeled P P in Figure 8.1 Inducing Exports with a Domestic Production Subsidy , while the consumer price, P C , remains equal to the free trade price
  3. d. First, the demand curve is a function of the price that the consumer pays out of pocket for a good (Pc), since this out-of-pocket cost influences consumers' consumption decisions.. Second, the supply curve is a function of the price that the producer receives for a good (Pp) since.
  4. What Does Net Price Mean? The net price is what the customer effectively pays for a product or service. There is a list price or manufacturer's suggested retail price (MRSP), which is a kind of baseline price. However, many times the seller has to apply taxes imposed by law such as the Value Added Tax
  5. First, consider a tax imposed on the seller. At a given price p, and tax t, each seller obtains p - t, and thus supplies the amount associated with this net price. Taking the before-tax supply to be S Before, the after-tax supply is shifted up by the amount of the tax. This is the amount that covers the marginal value of the last unit, plus.

Most customers are only willing to pay $5, which is coincidentally the price that is set when demand meets supply exactly. At $5, 20 bottles are supplied, and the consumer surplus is $50. It means that - shared among the customers who bought the 20 bottles of water - there are $50 in savings that can go towards other purchases 8: Suppose the government requires beer drinkers to pay a €2 tax on each case of beer purchased. Currently, the price of a case of beer is $24.50 (a)Draw a supply and demand diagram of the market for beer without the tax. Show the price paid by consumers, the price received by producers and the quantity of beer sold The price paid by consumers is the same as the price received by producers. b. When the tax is imposed, it drives a wedge of $2 between supply and demand, as shown in Figure 6. The price paid by consumers is P 2, while the price received by producers is P 2 ­- $2. The quantity of beer sold declines to Q 2 a.) Solve for the equilibrium price and quantity. Suppose the government imposes a per-unit tax of $4 on the sellers. b.) Solve for the new quantity, the net price received by sellers, and the price paid by consumers. c.) Calculate the government revenue from the tax. d.) Calculate the deadweight loss resulting from the tax. e.

This is because consumers are less sensitive to price changes, e.g. a 20% increase in price might only lead to a 5% contraction in demand. However, when demand is price elastic (i.e. Ped>1), then most of the incidence of a tax is absorbed by the producer. In this situation, only a small proportion of the tax will be paid by the consumer The NET benefit received by buyers in the market is measured by a. the demand curve. lost revenue to businesses because of higher prices to consumers from the tax. ANSWER: a. The price paid by buyers increases by $2 and the after-tax price received by sellers unit tax on the market for beer. Assume the tax is on producers. Show graphically the effects of this excise tax. Label the price consumers pay after the tax as P1, the price the producers receive after the tax as P2, and the quantity of beer purchased after the tax as Q'. S D P Q 20 10 0 4 1 In economics, consumer surplus refers to the net gain that a customer receives when she purchases a specific good at a specific price. It represents the difference between the actual price paid for a good and the price a consumer would be willing to pay to purchase the good In other words, pre-tax and post-tax price (P = P T) are the same. Thus, the incidence of a sales tax falls entirely upon the sellers. Fig. 4.30(b) displays a perfectly inelastic demand curve. Pre-tax price is OP. After the imposition of a tax, price rises to OP T. Thus, the entire burden of tax will have to be borne by the buyers

Consumer and producer surpluses are shown as the area where consumers would have been willing to pay a higher price for a good or the price where producers would have been willing to sell a good. In the sample market shown in the graph, equilibrium price is $10 and equilibrium quantity is 3 units With no tax, as shown in Figure 6, the demand curve is D1 and the supply curve is S1. If the tax is imposed on producers, the supply curve shifts up by the amount of the tax (50 cents) to S2. Then the equilibrium quantity is Q2, the price paid by consumers is P2, and the price received (after taxes are paid) by producers is P2 - 50 cents Pc-t. Finding the price the paid by consumers set supply equation equal to demand equation, subbing in Pc-t for the Pp in the supply equation. Price recieved by producers is given by subtracting the amount of tax from the price paid by consumers. Finding the new quantity; insert the consumer prices and price received by producers into their. The tax increases A)the amount received by sellers by $30. B)the after-tax price by $40. C)the price paid by buyers by $30. D)the quantity of pizza sold from 40 million per year to 60 million per year. 12) 13)In the above figure, the government has imposed a tax on sellers of pizza. After the tax ha

Economic Effects of Taxes on a Competitive Industry

Consumer Surplus and the Demand Curve Individual consumer surplus is the net gain to an individual buyer from the purchase of a good. It is equal to the difference between the buyer's willingness to pay and the price paid. Total producer surplus in a market is the sum of the individual producer surpluses of all the sellers of a good Economics Principles of Macroeconomics (MindTap Course List) The government places a tax on the purchase of socks. a. Illustrate the effect of this tax on equilibrium price and quantity in the sock market. Identify the following areas both before and after the imposition of the tax: total spending by consumers, total revenue for producers, and government tax revenue Net of tax is the amount left after adjusting for the effects of taxes. Net of tax analysis can be important to consider in all situations where taxes may be involved A common form of tax is a sales tax, which is added on to the price of a product and paid by the consumer. Another common type of tax is a VAT (value added tax) which is paid by the producer along their production chain. The sales tax on the consumer shifts the demand curve to the left, symbolizing a reduction in demand for the product because. In the case of a low price, producers transfer profits to consumers. Consumers, in competing for a limited amount of the controlled product, may waste as much as they gain from getting it at a low.

The Incidence of Commodity Taxatio

  1. According to basic economic theory, a tariff, like any tax, will drive a wedge between the price a buyer pays for a good and the price a seller receives for the good. One possible consequence of a tariff is a higher price paid by buyers and a lower price received by sellers (relative to a market in equilibrium)
  2. b. The excise tax raises the price paid by consumers post-tax to $0.60 and lowers the price received by producers post-tax to $0.20. With the excise tax, what is the quantity of soda transacted? With the excise tax, Alice and Rosalie sell, and Homer and Bart buy one can of soda each. So the quantity sold is 2
  3. Producer and Consumer Subsidies 1. Producer and Consumer Subsidies AS Micro Revision November 2013 2. Producer Subsidies • A subsidy is a payment by the government to suppliers that reduce their costs of production and encourages them to increase output • State subsidises are financed from general taxation or by borrowing • The subsidy causes the firm's supply curve to shift to the right.

Econ Ch 8 Flashcards Quizle

  1. assume the market price for tangerines is 18.00 per bushel. at the market price, tangerine growers are willing to supply a quantity of 12,000 bushels per week. the quantity supplies drops to zero when the price falls to 5.00 per bushel. construct a graph showing this data, calculate the total producer surplus in the market for tangerines and show the total producer surplus on the graph
  2. The result would be that U.S. consumers would end up paying $2 more per pound than foreign producers received. The market would end up an equilibrium like this, with a quantity demanded and supplied at which the price paid by consumers was exactly $2 higher than the price received by the foreign suppliers
  3. The tax would result in a much lower quantity sold instead of lower prices received. illustrates this relationship between the tax incidence and elasticity of demand and supply. Figure 5.10 Elasticity and Tax Incidence An excise tax introduces a wedge between the price paid by consumers (Pc) and the price received by producers (Pp). The.
  4. Producers gain and consumers lose because of the price increase, which induces lower consumption and higher production. The import bill is (q s-q d) · p ep, the expenditure by consumers (q d· p ep), and the revenue of producers (q s· p ep). Box 6: Classification of goods according to their tradabilit
  5. The proposed tax is a 15% tax on companies with net income more than $100 million. At least one commentator estimates the tax on book income would increase the tax burden on new investment by 8.75.

Solution With a 1 tax on each pizza sold the effective

  1. This change also can be expressed in dollars, as follows: prices received by domestic producers of a sample of final demand goods have risen from $100 in November 2009 to $105.50. Likewise, a current index of 90.0 would indicate that prices received by producers of final demand goods are 10 percent lower than they were in November 2009
  2. However, tax credits will offset higher prices for consumers so that the margin still goes back to producers. In the same vein, some states also provide a tax credit or subsidy for buying an.
  3. Economics Principles of Microeconomics (MindTap Course List) The government places a tax on the purchase of socks. a. Illustrate the effect of this tax on equilibrium price and quantity in the sock market. Identify the following areas both before and after the imposition of the tax: total spending by consumers, total revenue for producers, and government tax revenue
  4. The stock price of Intuitive Surgical has seen an 8% rise over the last five trading days, while it's up 12% over the last ten trading sessions, after the company announced better than expected.
  5. The stock price of United Parcel Service has seen an 11% rise over the last five trading days, after the company announced better than expected Q1 results. UPS' Q1 revenue of $22.9 billion was.

let's look a little bit at the market for hamburgers so this is this is the supply and the demand curve for the for the price and the quantity of hamburgers sold per day and so if we have a completely unfettered market no intervention no taxes nothing like that then we see we have an equilibrium price in an equilibrium quantity the equilibrium price the equilibrium price looks like it's about. Tax Wedge: A tax wedge is the difference between before-tax and after-tax wages. The tax wedge measures how much the government receives as a result of taxing the labor force. 2. A measure of the. If a seller advertises goods or services at a certain price and sells out of those goods or services, consumers who respond to the ad after the product is no longer available are entitled to a rain check, allowing them to purchase the advertised product or service at a later date for the sale price (O.A.C. 109:4-3-03)

The demand for football tickets is Q=360-10P and the supply of football tickets is Q=20P. Calculate the gross price paid by consumers after a per-ticket tax of $4. Calculate the after-tax price received by ticket sellers shows the effect of a unit tax placed on a good. 18. What is the price paid by consumers and the net price received by producers after the tax is paid? Paid by Received by Consumers Producers (A) $11.00 $10.45 (B) $11.00 $10.00 (C) $10.45 $10.00 (D) $10.45 $9.45 (E) $10.00 $9.45 19. According to the diagram, what is the dollar amount of the. The tax would result in a much lower quantity sold instead of lower prices received. Figure 3 illustrates this relationship between the tax incidence and elasticity of demand and supply. Figure 3. Elasticity and Tax Incidence. An excise tax introduces a wedge between the price paid by consumers (Pc) and the price received by producers (Pp) Both consumers and producers lose: it is illustrated by the deadweight loss (LC - loss to consumers; LP - loss to producers). However, consumers face a net gain because the price ceiling has caused a shift in producer surplus to consumer surplus (illustrated by the green rectangle). Therefore, in our example The producer price index (PPI) is a family of indexes that gauges the average fluctuation in selling prices received by domestic producers over time

Thus, the world price remains at $15, so that after the tariff of $5 is added, the relevant price of X in the nation is now $20. With an increase in price from $15 to $20, producers increase production by 80 more units, for a total of 180 units supplied domestically. Consumers respond to the $20 price by buying 500 units U.S. companies and consumers paid $3 billion a month in additional taxes because of tariffs on Chinese goods and on global metals imports, according to a study by the Federal Reserve Bank of New. A new study finds the Trump administration's trade policies and tariffs reduced U.S. income at a rate of $1.4 billion per month by November. The Federal Reserve Bank of New York, Princeton and. It can also be stated that the price that buyers pay rises by half of the tax, and the price that sellers receive falls by roughly half of the tax. As Figure 7 and 8 shows, market clearing requires four conditions to be satisfied after the tax is in place (Pindyck and Rubinfeld, 2005:327, 328)

Recall, that the government pays the subsidy for each unit sold. Therefore, the overall amount paid by the government is: S * Q. 2*6. 12. Therefore the total amount paid by the government is $12. There are a few things worth noting. The price decreases by less than the size of the subsidy; The subsidy leads to an increase in quantity being produce If the factory is only being paid 1.53 euros - from which, in addition to salaries, it has to pay the operating costs of maintaining the buildings and machines, electricity costs or management salaries - it doesn't take long to realise that it's going to be more than tight A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of tax that is assessed incrementally. It is levied on the price of a product or service at each stage of production, distribution, or sale to the end consumer. If the ultimate consumer is a business that collects and pays to the government VAT on its products or services, it can reclaim the tax paid *NOTE: the imposed tax has shifted the equilibrium price up 30 cents to P1 (consumers now pay $3.30 per gallon of gas), and down 10 cents to P2 (producers now receive $2.90 in sales revenue per gallon of gas)

Chapter 8 Costs of TaxationEconowaugh AP: 09/14/14

Therefore, our model of the alcohol price faced by consumers is stated as follows, (1) price ijk = net − of − tax price ijk + federal and state excise taxes ijk × 1 + sales tax rates ijk, where index i stands for either on-premise or off-premise consumption, index j stands for beer, wine, or distilled spirits, and index k stands for state. The United States imposed new import tariffs on about $283 billion of U.S. imports in 2018, with rates ranging between 10 percent and 50 percent. In this post, we estimate the effect of these tariffs on the prices paid by U.S. producers and consumers. We find that the higher import tariffs had immediate impacts on U.S. domestic prices. Our results suggest that the aggregate consumer price. Since consumers are forced to pay higher price (P 2 instead of P 1), they bear some of the burden of the tax. But price does not rise fully by the amount of the tax per unit. This is shown by the vertical distance from B to C. The suppliers receive a price of P 3 per unit which is less what they received before the imposition of the tax.

(a) A senator proposes a per unit sales tax on good X. Explain how this tax will affect each of the following. (i) The price paid by consumers (ii) The quantity of good X produced (iii) The total after-tax revenues received by producers of good X (b) Explain how imposing this tax might result in greater economic efficiency than woul P* = the price suppliers receive. t = the tax they pay. thus. P* = P - 2. We know need to re-write our supply equation to incorporate the tax. Thus we would get: Qs = 3(P-2) Qs = 3P - 6. Now we can again equate supply equal to demand such that: 25 - 2P = 3P - 6. 31 = 5P. P = 6.2. Which is what we expected since you assume that taxes will.

Economics Final Flashcards Quizle

A Producer Price Index for an industry is a measure of changes in prices received for the industry's output sold outside the industry (that is, its net output). The PPI publishes approximately 535 industry price indexes in combination with over 4,000 specific product line and product category sub-indexes, as well as, roughly 500 indexes for. Key Findings. We estimate that the Trump administration's imposition of tariffs, along with retaliatory actions taken by our trading partners, will reduce economic output, income, and employment.; The Trump administration has so far imposed $80 billion worth of new taxes on Americans by levying tariffs on thousands of products, which is equivalent to one of the largest tax increases in. With the tax of USD 1.00, the effective market price (i.e., the price sellers receive after paying the tax) is USD 2.00. As a consequence, sellers will make less profit and therefore, only supply the number of burgers they would provide if the market price was USD 2.00

4.7 Taxes and Subsidies - Principles of Microeconomic

The equilibrium price and quantity before the imposition of tax are Q 0 and P 0. With the tax, the supply curve shifts by the tax amount from Supply 0 to Supply 1. Producers would want to supply less due to the imposition of a tax. The buyer's price would increase from P 0 to P 1 and the seller would receive a lower price for the good from P. Producers are struggling with high raw material prices and shipping costs, which might be passed on to the end consumer. Rising energy prices — US oil prices are at more than $60 a barrel.

20091105 - quota GRD(Global Resources Dividend) tax

When a tax is imposed on consumers, they are willing to pay a lower price for each unit, so prices will fall. The consumer tax burden equals (post-tax price - pre-tax price)+per-unit tax payments by consumers. The producer tax burden equals (pre-tax price - post-tax price)+per-unit tax payments by producers Calculating the net effect of these contradictory programs, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development estimates that U.S. farm policy raises food prices enough to cost consumers. The price paid per kWh under a feed-in tariff exceeds the price of grid electricity. Net metering Net metering refers to the case where the price paid by the utility is the same as the price charged, often achieved by having the electricity meter spin backwards as electricity produced by the PV installation in excess of the amount being used. The Consumer Price Index (CPI), a product of the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), is perhaps the most widely used measure of inflation in the United States. The CPI measures the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers in the United States for a market basket of goods and services

Jo's Store is in Marietta, Georgia where the sales tax rate is 6%. All of Jo's customers would pay 6% sales tax on purchases made in-person, inside the store. But, in almost every state, if you buy something online and pay sales tax on it, you'll pay the sales tax rate at the address where you have the items shipped. Example 2 Essay # 1. Concept of Consumer's Surplus:. The price which a consumer pays for a commodity is always less than what he is willing to pay for it, so that the satisfaction which he gets from its purchase is more than the price paid for it and thus he derives a surplus satisfaction which Marshall calls Consumer's Surplus (CS) The change in name to Producer Price Index emphasized that its conceptual foundations were based on prices received by producers from whomever makes the first purchase, rather than on prices paid to wholesalers by retailers or others further down in the distribution chain. 38 At the same time, the structure of the index was changed substantially This lowers the world price even further, to the level A00. The subsidy required is therefore the height A00A. Then, in in the left hand panel, the price in the US must rise back to the old level A, otherwise US producers will not sell in the US market, as they would do better to collect the subsidy and sell abroad

the tax increase to the consumers, then: (1) The higher price for consumers would mean they would choose to buy less. (2) However, the firms would still want to supply the same amount. (3) The market has Supply > Demand and prices will fall. (4) Thus prices for firms will fall until Supply(Price less tax) = Demand (Price including tax The key measure - the price index for personal consumption expenditures — increased by 3.5% in the first three months of 2021. This was up from 1.5% during the last three months of 2020 To solve for the new equilibrium price and quantity with the unit tax note that the price producers get (P. S) is equal to the price consumers pay (P D) minus the amount of the tax (2). Thus, P S = P D-2. Now we can sub in this expression for P S into the demand curve and solve for P D which will be the price of exchange 38-3*P. D =P. D-2-2⇒P.

• After payment of the tax, the net price received by sellers , PN, falls to 90 cents. • If Q is the reduction in output due to the substitution effect of the tax, then the area ABC measures the excess burden of the tax. 2. The Impact of Taxes on Market Prices and Efficiency Excess Burden of a Ta the prebate and the administrative credit paid to businesses and states for collecting the tax results in a net tax base of $9,355 billion. In 2007, spending at current levels is projected to be $3,285 billion. Revenues from the FairTax at a 23% tax rate, plus other federal revenues, are estimated to yield $3,209 billion which is $7 The effectiveness of a tax depends, in part, on how sensitive soda consumption is to a change in price In economic terminology, the percentage decrease in consumption resulting from a 1 percent increase in price is known as the elasticity of demand If a given increase in price produces a large change in consumption, demand is more elasti For the tariffs put into place since January 2018 and planned for expansion across the remainder of U.S. imports from China, the cost per year to the average U.S. household is a large bite out of the tax cut received under the 2017 Tax Reform Act. Further escalation of the trade war is likely to raise the costs In the consumer services section alone, companies like Charter Communications (the parent of Spectrum Internet), Dish Network, FedEx, HP and Nike all either paid $0 in taxes or received a refund

0.5% or .005 (one-half of one percent), 50 cents for every $100 of sales. It is to be collected on the net sales price. NET is after moisture and quality discounts or premiums, but before any deductions for storage, handling, trucking or other services. 2. Can a producer get a refund on his bean checkoff determining the price paid to the processor or primary wholesaler by the secondary wholesaler or distributor is: w. where w s Msecondary Price paid to the processor or pri­ mary wholesaler = Secondary whole sale price Mark-up of the secondary whole­ saler(%) For the striped bass example the price paid to the processor is $6.16: w = $7.58 p $6.1 Consumer 2 buys a game since his willingness to pay is greater than the price. He gains $35 − $29 = $6. Consumer 3 buys a game since her willingness to pay is greater than the price. She . gains $30 − $29 = $1. The total consumer surplus is $11 + $6 + $1 = $18. b. Consumer 1 buys a game since her willingness to pay is greater than the price A world where monopolies control their own price despite the consumer. A world where competition for consumers controls the price. A world where price-fixing, collusion between one or more producers to set pricing, and price gouging, over-pricing by vendors to profit from disaster, are illegal If the tax credit was not in place at the time of the transaction, the biodiesel producer would have been paid the same price as diesel producers. However, if the tax credit had been in place, the biodiesel selling price would be increased by $1 per gallon, the amount of the tax credit

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