SPSS weighted t test

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An overview of statistical tests in SPSS SPSS Learning

The same method that shows that the average of the means should be used for comparison shows that it would be appropriate to use the average of the variances (or SD) would also be appropriate for. Weight Cases gives cases different weights (by simulated replication) for statistical analysis. The values of the weighting variable should indicate the number of observations represented by single cases in your data file. Cases with zero, negative, or missing values for the weighting variable are excluded from analysis.. Yes you can realize a weighted t-test. I did it with the package survey under the R statistical software. With this package, you can weight your mean and realised the t-test with the weighted. SPSS One Sample T-Test Tutorial By Ruben Geert van den Berg under T-Test. Also see One-Sample T-Test - Quick Tutorial & Example.. SPSS one-sample t-test tests if the mean of a single quantitative variable is equal to some hypothesized population value. The figure illustrates the basic idea. SPSS One Sample T-Test - Exampl

In our enhanced independent t-test guide, we (a) show you how to perform Levene's test for homogeneity of variances in SPSS Statistics, (b) explain some of the things you will need to consider when interpreting your data, and (c) present possible ways to continue with your analysis if your data fails to meet this assumption (learn more here) Click Ok and run the one sample t test on your SPSS program; The first table is the descriptive statistics output and the second one is the inferential statistics which we need in this test. A. Test Value= the hypothesis value which inputted into the One-Sample T-Test. B. t= The t-test statistic value of based on the one-sample t-test

SPSS Weight - Caveats. In contrast to SPLIT FILE and FILTER, the active weight variable is saved with the data. So when you start SPSS and open a data file, a weight variable may already be in effect. An active weight variable does not only affect the output that's generated This video demonstrates how to create weighted and unweighted averages in SPSS using the Compute Variables function

Weighting Cases - SPSS Tutorials - LibGuides at Kent State

  1. e whether there is a difference between two independent, unrelated groups (e.g., undergraduate versus PhD students, athletes given supplement A versus athletes given.
  2. The weighted t-test. Use of the above formulae gives equal weight to each observation. But if your sampling or experimental unit is a cluster, then the percentages or means may be based on different sample sizes. In that situation, those based on a larger sample size should carry more weight
  3. the examples will show that mTAB and SPSS will yield different T-statistic results because SPSS uses weighted bases and mTAB uses unweighted bases when calculating T-statistics. Finally, the comparison of weighted T-tests will show why using weighted bases can sometimes yield false conclusions of significant mean differences
  4. The weighted t-test is the statistical test to re-balance your sample. The weighted t-test adjusts means and standard deviations to generate p-values based on the correct representation. Using the weighted statistical test versus an unweighted statistical test doesn't necessarily yield different conclusions
  5. This video demonstrates how to use the Weight Cases feature in SPSS. In this example, a chi square is calculated for two sets of data, with the second set.

The SPSS procedure for conducting difference of means t-test outlined above produces two tables. Each serves a different purpose. The first table is shown in Figure 5. It simply reports summary statistics for the test variable (e.g. TVHOURS) for each of the two groups of observations (e.g. No and Yes on the married variable) This test is only used when both: the two sample sizes (that is, the number, n, of participants of each group) are equal; it can be assumed that the two distributions have the same variance. Violations of these assumptions are discussed below. The t statistic to test whether the means are different can be calculated as follows: wher Consider first an analysis that doesn't use any of the weight variables (an unweighted analysis). The output below shows a crosstab created in SPSS. A few key points to note: For the purposes of this post, it is easiest to think of this test as comparing the proportions of Females that prefer Pepsi Max (10.4%) with the proportion of Males (19.4%) I am trying to run an independent sample t-test with weights computed through propensity score. Y is the outcome variable (a continuous variable) and sec is the grouping variable having two categories (code 0 and 1). I used the following command: wtd.t.test(Ya1, sec1, weight=weights1T) Following results were produced

A t-test looks at the t-statistic, the t-distribution values, and the degrees of freedom to determine the statistical significance. To conduct a test with three or more means, one must use an. p-value from t-test. Recall that the p-value is the probability (calculated under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true) that the test statistic will produce values at least as extreme as the t-score produced for your sample.As probabilities correspond to areas under the density function, p-value from t-test can be nicely illustrated with the help of the following pictures A two sample t-test is used to test whether or not the means of two populations are equal.. This tutorial explains how to conduct a two sample t-test in SPSS. Example: Two Sample t-test in SPSS. Researchers want to know if a new fuel treatment leads to a change in the average miles per gallon of a certain car T-tests are a group of statistical tests which compare the means of variables for samples. The mathematics behind a t-test essentially compares the number of standard errors the sample means are from each other, and checks how likely the difference is according to the t-table - a table of probabilities adjusted from those for the standard normal distribution to reflect uncertainty in samples

Using case weights is a complex issue, so let it suffice here to learn that, and how, it can be done with SPSS. All you need is a variable containing case weights (this variable indeed may be called weight, but it may also have any other name). Then weights can be turned on with the command, e.g., WEIGHT BY weight. and turned off with the comman To perform One Sample t-Test for the data above: 1. Create data file: Enter the data in SPSS, with the variable weight takes up one column as shown in the picture on the right. 2. Check Normality: Since the test is for studying samples from normally distributed populations, the first thing t A two sample t-test is used to test whether or not the means of two populations are equal.. This tutorial explains how to conduct a two sample t-test in SPSS. Example: Two Sample t-test in SPSS. Researchers want to know if a new fuel treatment leads to a change in the average miles per gallon of a certain car

The rest is getting the t-score and comparing to a critical. t* = 2.414 for a one sided test, alpha = 0.01, and df=44. t-score = -0.81, which is between -2.414 and 2.414, so we fail to reject. We cannot find evidence that life expectancy as a whole has been reduced in Damascus, Syria The only complication from the basic two-sample T-test is that the data is weighted. I am using weighted means and standard deviations, but weighted N's will artificially inflate the size of the sample, hence bias the result. Is it simply a case of replacing the weighted Ns with the unweighted Ns? t-test One-Sample T-test (Cont)Interpret SPSS Output: The statistics for the test are in the following table.The one sample t-test statistic is 3.582 and the p-value from this statistic is .002and that is less than 0.05 (the level of significance usually used for the test)Such a p-value indicates that the average weight of the sampled population. A Mann-Whitney U test is a non-parametric alternative to the independent (unpaired) t-test to determine the difference between two groups of either continuous or ordinal data. The reason you would perform a Mann-Whitney U test over an independent t-test is when the data is not normally distributed

predicting AR, t(48) = 4.759, p < .001. Likewise, age also makes a significant, unique, contribution, t(48) = 3.653, p = .001 Please note that the values for the partial coefficients that you get in a multiple regression are highly dependent on the context provided by the other variables in a model. I that you want to change. The weight will then appear in the box labelled Coefficients where you can type in a new weight and then click on . Alternatively, you can click on any of the weights and remove it completely by clicking . Underneath the weights SPSS calculates the coefficient total, should equal zero (If you've used the correct weights) Hit the Exact button (top right within the Crosstabs dialog), and choose the Exact option, leaving the test time limit as it is. Press Continue, and then OK to run the test. The Result. You can view the test result in the SPSS output viewer. It'll look something like this. As you can see above, the value of the Fisher's exact test statistic. The t tests (and related nonparametric tests) compare exactly two groups. ANOVA (and related nonparametric tests) compare three or more groups. Finally, don't confuse a t test with analyses of a contingency table (Fishers or chi-square test). Use a t test to compare a continuous variable (e.g., blood pressure, weight or enzyme activity). Use a.

Write the symbol for the test statistic (e.g., z or t) 2. Write the degrees of freedom in parentheses 3. Write an equal sign and then the value of the test statistic (2 decimal places) 4. Write a comma and then whether the p value associated with the test statistic was less than or greater than the cutoff p value of 05value of .0 independent sample t test is a test which is carried out by taking samples independently therefore this t-test is a so-weight gain, therefore this t-test is a so- calledcalled 2-tailed t.2-tailed t. . In addition, SPSS provides aIn addition, SPSS provides a t-valuet-value ofof -4.47 with 8 degrees of freedom.-4.47 with 8. In the second section, the chi-square test of independence, independent and paired sample t tests, bivariate correlations, regression, and the general linear model will be covered. If you are not familiar with SPSS or need more information about how to get SPSS to read your data, you may wish to read our SPSS for Windows: Getting Started tutorial

Independent Samples t Test - SPSS Tutorials - LibGuides at

  1. ators of the test statistic
  2. See the section Observe the Distribution of Your Data in Chapter 2 for a discussion of tests for normality. Comparing One or Two Means Using the t-Test—— 51 Length 4.02 4.01 4.00 3.99 3.98 3.97 3.96 3.95 Figure 3.2 Boxplot of the Bolt Data Since the bolts will be out of design whether they are too short or to
  3. SPSS for Starters and 2nd Levelers by Ton J. Cleophas; Aeilko H. Zwinderman A complete overview of SPSS methodologies for medical and health statistics. Medical and health professionals tend to dislike software syntax. Therefore, virtually no syntax, but, rather, simple menu commands are given
  4. The paired t-test compares the mean difference of the values to zero. It depends on the mean difference, the variability of the differences and the number of data. Various assumptions also need to hold - see validity section below. You should practise entering the data into SPSS (PASW), but the data are available on W:\EC\STUDENT\ MATH
  5. Paired t: Tests whether the mean of the differences between dependent or paired observations is equal to a target value: If you measure the weight of male college students before and after each subject takes a weight-loss pill, is the mean weight loss significant enough to conclude that the pill works? t-test in regression outpu
  6. How to Perform a Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test in SPSS The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test is the non-parametric version of the paired samples t-test . It is used to test whether or not there is a significant difference between two population means when the distribution of the differences between the two samples cannot be assumed to be normal
  7. Name: SPSS Worksheet 1: (t-test)Instructions: Lesson 24 Exercise File 1 is located at the end of the chapter under the heading Exercises in your Green and Salkind textbook.Complete the exercise and then complete the worksheet below by filling in the blanks and answering the questions

Interpretation of the SPSS output: 1. You'll see there is 12 valid value of height and weight, no summarize of missing value here. 2. The minimum value of height is 160 cm, the maximum value is 175. The mean value is 168.08 cm. 3. For weight, the minimum value is 60 kg and the maximum value is 79 kg. The mean value 68.67 kg. 4 t-test of average of weighted means 30 Mar 2016, 13:56. Hi All, I would like to do a hypothesis test on whether the average of weighted means of two different samples is the same. I have a data set that looks like this: Company: Leverage97: Sales97: Leverage98: Sales98: Leverage99: Sales99: Leverage00: Sales00: Argentina1 The SPSS output from the T-TEST and CORR(elation) procedures is shown below. Comparisons across conditions (e.g., drug treatments vs. psychotherapies) were made by computing a weighted mean for each group were the individual trial means were weighted by the number of cases for the trial

Problems with SPSS survey weights L

  1. Assumptions. Student's t-test assumes that the sample means (test statistics) of two population distributions being compared are normally distributed with equal variance.Welch's t-test is designed for unequal sample distribution variance, but the assumption of normally distributed sample is maintained. Welch's t-test is an approximate solution to the Behrens-Fisher problem
  2. t.test(weight~sex, var.equal = T) I specialize in helping graduate students and researchers in psychology, education, economics and the social sciences with all aspects of statistical analysis. Many new and relatively uncommon statistical techniques are available, and these may widen the field of hypotheses you can investigate
  3. What does a statistical test do? Statistical tests work by calculating a test statistic - a number that describes how much the relationship between variables in your test differs from the null hypothesis of no relationship.. It then calculates a p-value (probability value). The p-value estimates how likely it is that you would see the difference described by the test statistic if the null.
  4. SPSS can not be used with only the summarizing statistics (mean, standard deviation, sample size). Below left is the sample data. The sample mean is 38.6 and the sample standard deviation is 8.5. 2. Example: Suppose we want to test the claim that the population mean is larger than 35 (Or the mean score of 38.6 is signi cantly more than 35). H 0.
  5. Hello, I wanted to do a t-test using variables age and doctor-diagnosed asthma (ConDr) accounting also for my sample weight which is int121314. I tried the. T-test with Sample Weight 16 Jul 2016, 18:04. Hello, I wanted to do a t-test using variables age and doctor-diagnosed asthma (ConDr) accounting also for my sample weight which is.
  6. Therefore, a paired-samples t-test conducted on two samples is equivalent to a one-sample t-test conducted on the difference scores (calculated on the two samples) compared against 0. Nota Bene: You will see that in the previous paired-samples t-test we obtained a t-statistic of -2.416, but here the t-statistic is positive

Trong thống kê, có ba loại t test thông dụng, đó là One-Sample T Test. Independent Samples T Test. Pair sample T test. Nhóm MBA Bách KHoa Hỗ Trợ SPSS giới thiệu đến các bạn khi nào cần xài loại nào nhé. Cụ thể: Nếu muốn so sánh giá trị trung bình của tổng th View Homework Help - SPSS Worksheet 1 (t-test)_revised_3.5.18(1).docx from EDUC 812 at Liberty University. 1 RESULTS OF T-TEST Individual Write Up: Results of T-Test Theo Jones Libert

The test for equality of variances is dependent on the sample size. A rule of thumb is that if the ratio of the larger to smaller standard deviation is greater than two, then the unequal variance test should be used. With a computer one can easily do both the equal and unequal variance t test and see if the answers differ Bootstrapping is any test or metric that uses random sampling with replacement (e.g. mimicking the sampling process), and falls under the broader class of resampling methods. Bootstrapping assigns measures of accuracy (bias, variance, confidence intervals, prediction error, etc.) to sample estimates. This technique allows estimation of the sampling distribution of almost any statistic using. Become an expert in statistical analysis with the most extended SPSS course at Udemy: 146 video lectures covering about 15 hours of video! Within a very short time you will master all the essential skills of an SPSS data analyst, from the simplest operations with data to the advanced multivariate techniques like logistic regression, multidimensional scaling or principal component analysis The null hypothesis (H 0) and (two-tailed) alternative hypothesis (H 1) of the one sample T test can be expressed as:H 0: µ = x (the sample mean is equal to the [proposed] population mean) H 1: µ ≠ x (the sample mean is not equal to the [proposed] population mean). where µ is a constant proposed for the population mean and x is the sample mean

What statistical analysis should I use? Statistical

  1. # Compute t-test res - t.test(weight ~ group, data = my_data, paired = TRUE) res Paired t-test data: weight by group t = 20.883, df = 9, p-value = 6.2e-09 alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is not equal to 0 95 percent confidence interval: 173.4219 215.5581 sample estimates: mean of the differences 194.4
  2. t-test definition. Student t test is a statistical test which is widely used to compare the mean of two groups of samples. It is therefore to evaluate whether the means of the two sets of data are statistically significantly different from each other.. There are many types of t test:. The one-sample t-test, used to compare the mean of a population with a theoretical value
  3. It is included with One-Sample t-Test, real-world exercises, hands-on projects, and assignments, which are provided to improve your overall skills. Don't forget to check our curation of Best Deep Learning Courses. Key USPs - - Get a brief introduction to the One-Sample t-Test, independent samples t-Test, and dependent sample t-Tests
  4. I tried your method and SPSS correctly weighted out the dummy case. The crosstab table showed 60% agreement (the raters agreed on 3 out of 5 valid ratings) which is correct. But it calculated Kappa as .000, which is definitely not correct. My test data was set up as follows: ### Rater1 Rater2 Weigh

THE DEPENDENT-SAMPLES t TEST PAGE 4 our example, t obt = 27.00 and t cv = 2.052, therefore, t obt > t cv - so we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is a statistically significant difference between the two conditions. That is, the average reaction time for the alcohol condition (M = 42.07) was significantly longer (slower) than the average reaction time for the no alcohol. Use SPSS to conduct a single-sample t test to test the nondirectional null hypothesis He: - 28. Using your output, complete the following statement of the results: The mean weight gain for this sample of n welght gains for women who gave birth to full-term babies in the county is pounds with a standard deviation of pounds

Student- t test or one-way ANOVA was used to test statistical significance among the groups, followed by comparison of each group mean with the Newman-Keuls-Student test assisted with the software SigmaStat for Windows (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL).. Consistent with a previous report showing β-catenin expression in O2A OPC and CG4 cells , β. Q3. One-sample t Test with SPSS (5 points total) Import the Q3 data from the M4 data file into SPSS. This data set contains the amount of weight change for the female participants, calculated by PostWeight minus PreWeight for each of participant. A negative number indicates weight loss while a positive number indicates weight gain after the diet program The t-test, also known as t-statistic or sometimes t-distribution, is a popular statistical tool used to test differences between the means (averages) of two groups, or the difference between one group's mean and a standard value. or use a stats software package such as SPSS or Minitab to compute your results. The outputs of a t-test are. If say you had 10 questions and for each question, you had the average score pre-test and the average score post-test, then I believe that you are suggesting to use a paired t-test (with a sample of 10 pairs) to test the hypothesis that the average score didn't (or did) change The one-sample t-test is principally applied to pairs of observations, such as the results of crossover trials (see chapter 8), or for longitudinal data where the comparison is between baseline and follow-up values.The difference between the two observations is calculated in each pair, and the data set becomes a single sample. One-sample effect estimates and confidence intervals for paired.

How can I conduct a paired samples t-test with weighted means

SPSS Github Web Page. PWS Historical Observations - Daily summaries for the past 7 days - Archived data from 200,000+ Weather Underground crowd-sourced sensors from 200 First, let's recall the assumptions of the two-sample t test for comparing two population means: 1. The two samples are independent of one another 2. The two populations have equal variance or spread 3. The two populations are normally distributed. There's no getting around #1. That assumption must be satisfied for a two-sample t-test

Weight cases - IB

Therefore it is most appropriate to use a t-test in this example. If the sample size is large enough, the t-distribution will approximate the normal distribution. 6. Calculate sample mean(s). The sample means are given in this problem. The mean weight of Tar Pamlico crabs is 700 grams, while the mean weight of the Neuse crabs is 800 grams Calculate an appropriate test statistic; One way ANOVA uses F test statistics. Hand calculations require many steps to compute the F ratio, but statistical software like SPSS will compute the F ratio for you and will produce the ANOVA source table. ANOVA table will give you information about the variability between groups and within groups SPSS Instructions: Enter data in two columns: One for Seed, and other for Depth. Using Variable View, NAME. the variables (e.g. Seed, Depth) Using Variable View, assign . VALUES . to the Seed variable (e.g. 1( Seeded, 0( Unseeded) Return to Data View, and Select. ANALYZE . COMPARE MEANS. INDEPENDENT SAMPLES t-TEST. Select a . Test Variable (e.g. t - Obtained Value of t : This is the value of t-test statistic that SPSS has calculated. The larger the value of t, the smaller the probability that the results occurred by chance. Before computers were used for data analysis, you would have had to calculate th One-Sample T-Test In the SPSS menu, select Analyze>Compare Means>One Sample T-test Select the variable(s) from the list you want to look at and click the button to move it into the Test Variable(s) area. Then enter the test value. In this example, we're testing the hypothesis that the median house value is 200,000

Is there a weighted t-test? - ResearchGat

Each participant is entered on a separate line; a code is entered for the diet they were on (1 = Pizza, 2 = Beer); and the weight gain of each is entered, as follows Example 3.1 Using SPSS (command syntax) Next, the command syntax for an independent t-test must be entered into the command editor 2 Specify the One-Sample T-Test procedure options • Find and open the One-Sample T-Test procedure using the menus or the Procedure Navigator. • The settings for this example are listed below and are stored in the Example 1 settings template. To load this template, click Open Example Template in the Help Center or File menu. Option Valu This quick tutorial will explain how to test whether sample data is normally distributed in the SPSS statistics package. It is a requirement of many parametric statistical tests - for example, the independent-samples t test - that data is normally distributed. There are a number of different ways to test this requirement Contents Quantitative Analysis for one Variables Descriptive Statistics Histogram Test of Normality Box plot Stem & Leaf Quantitative Analysis for Two Variables Correlation Simple Linear regression Scatter Plot Qualitative Analysis for one Variables Frequencies Bar Chart Pie Chart Qualitative Analysis for Two Variables Crosstab Chi-Square Tests COMPARE MEANS Means One Sample T Test Independent. The SPSS Output Viewer will appear with the output: The Descriptive Statistics part of the output gives the mean, standard deviation, and observation count (N) for each of the dependent and independent variables. For example, the I'd rather stay at home than go out with my friends variable has a mean value of 4.11

SPSS One Sample T-Test - Beginners Tutoria

performance). A repeated-measures t-test could be used here; each subject's reaction time could be measured twice, once while they were drunk and once while they were sober. Rationale behind the t-test: In essence, both types of t-test are similar in principle to the z-score. (a) We have two sample means the value of the t-statistic. parameter. the degrees of freedom for the t-statistic. p.value. the p-value for the test. conf.int. a confidence interval for the mean appropriate to the specified alternative hypothesis. estimate. the estimated mean or difference in means depending on whether it was a one-sample test or a two-sample test. null.valu This extension provides the IBM SPSS Statistics R Configuration tool to assist with the installation of IBM SPSS Statistics - Integration Plug-in for R3.6 Java GPL-2.0 0 1 1 0 Updated Sep 24, 202 PASSS Research Question 3: T Test In the Independent Samples Test table, SPSS gives us the significance levels of the differences in means. The first test, Levene's Test for Equality of Variances, tests whether the two means have been taken from sample populations that have equal variance. If, for instance, the mean GCSE score

LHow to use population weights in SPSS Complex Samples | L

Independent t-test in SPSS Statistics - Procedure, output

William Sealy Gosset (1905) first published a t-test. He worked at the Guiness Brewery in Dublin and published under the name Student. The test was called Student Test (later shortened to t test). t tests can be easily computed with the Excel or SPSS computer application both confidence intervals and significance tests, test the Deans' claim at the .10 and .02 levels of significance. SPSS Solution. In SPSS, you need to analyze raw data. Once you have such data, you can use the T-TEST command (using the menus, it is Analyze/ Compare Means/ One-Sample T-Test). For the .10 level of significance, T-TEST /TESTVAL =

One-Sample T-Test in SPSS: With Interpretation - World

This test is run to check the validity of a null hypothesis based on the critical value at a given confidence interval and degree of freedom. However, please note that the student's t-test is applicable for data set with a sample size of less than 30. t-Test Formula Calculator. You can use the following t-Test Formula Calculato Students's t test - paired and independent t test In this method the critical value of t is altered as t w (i.e) weighted t test . 5 Where t 1=t (n1-1) d.f t 2=t (n2-1) d.f Example 2 A group of 5 patients treated with medicine. A is of weight 42,39,38,60 &41 kgs. Secon where \(e_{t}=y_{t}-\hat{y}_{t}\) are the residuals from the ordinary least squares fit. The DW test statistic varies from 0 to 4, with values between 0 and 2 indicating positive autocorrelation, 2 indicating zero autocorrelation, and values between 2 and 4 indicating negative autocorrelation Just fill in the blanks by using the SPSS output . Let's start by filing in the Mean and Standard Deviation for each condition. Now we'll finish up by filling in the values related to the T-Test. Here we enter the degrees of freedom (df), the t-value (t), and the Sig. (2-tailed) value (often referred to as the p value)

Calculating t statistic for slope of regression line | AP

SPSS WEIGHT Command - SPSS Tutorial

On Jan 18, 2012, at 9:26 AM, rosa wrote: Hi, I want to perform a weighted t-test using survey data. Given I cannot apply the 'ttest' command together with 'svy', I am using the 'lincom' command (as learned in stata's FAQ) math and verbal test scores. You would like to perform a t test on verbal scores, using the students above and below a given cutoff score on the math as the independent groups. With the Independent-Samples T Test procedure, all you need to provide is the cut point . The program divides the sample in two at the cut point and performs the t test

Creating Weighted and Unweighted Averages in SPSS - YouTub

Dependent Samples t-Test Calculator; This calculator performs a Dependent Samples t-Test (also known as a Matched-Pairs t-Test) Paired Samples Hypothesis Testing in SPSS. This tutorial demonstrates step-by step methods for running a paired samples hypothesis test in SPSS. This type of statistical test is variably referred to as related sample, matched pairs or repeated measures testing. The test essentially tests for a difference in a variable under different conditions Chi-square test; T-test; Factor analysis test; Mean square weighted deviation test; Time series analysis test; Mann-Whitney u test; Key Features Of Our SPSS Assignment Help. You will get 100% plagiarism-free SPSS Assignment Help from our SPSS tutors. Our SPSS tutors work round the clock. So, you can contact us at any time of your choice

You conduct a t test for independent means and reject theHow to test the reliability and validity of aCureus | Nerve Root Sedimentation Sign: Can It Predict the

The t-test family is based on the t-distribution, sometimes also called Student's t. Student is the pseudonym used by W. S. Gosset in 1908 to publish the t-distribution based on his empirical findings on the height and the length of the left middle finger of criminals in a local prison If you don't standardise, the scales with the greater variance will be weighted more in the composite. This applies whether you are creating a composite as a sum or as a mean. Thus, if you are creating a composite based on a set of items all on the same scale (e.g., 1 to 5 Likert items), then you can just take the sum or mean of those items Weight would be taken before and after the diet and the mean weight lost compared for the two groups. The dependent variable 'weight lost' is continuous and the independent variable is the group the subject is in which is categorical. If the data is normally distributed, use the independent t-test, if not use the Mann-Whitney test

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