causes of environmental degradation in coastal areas of south west Nigeria. It was propelled by environmental challenges, and identified responsible factors in the study area The degradation of coastal ecosystems imperils species that rely on this habitat. Natural hazards such as tropical cyclones, climate fluctuations, and flooding cause ecosystem degradation The degradation of coastal ecosystems imperils species that rely on this habitat. Natural hazards such as tropical cyclones, climate fluctuations, and flooding cause ecosystem degradation. Coastal ecosystems have been exploited for development, recreation, and industry, worldwide. Over population, pollution, destruction of mangroves and coral. . As longshore sand transport (also called littoral drift) depends primarily on the direction and height of breaking waves, a gradient in longshore transport can be due to longshore varying wave conditions, coastline curvature, or nearshore.
As coastal construction increases and global temperatures rise, an estimated 33 percent of corals are now in danger of extinction. Coral reef destruction is defined as the degradation (and potential mass death) of the ocean's corals. Increased tourism is one of the major causes of the destruction of coral reefs. The following factors. Human development also causes coastal erosion, as structures such as bridges and levees change the flow characteristics near the coast. These currents and waves react to the structures and often strike other areas, causing localized spots of coastal erosion Although there are more than 5 causes of ocean degradation, these 5 causes are all too common and, hands down, wreak the most havoc. calcium supplements and other medicines, souvenirs in coastal towns, and use in personal and public aquaria. Because the reef must be blasted in order to dismantle it, not only is the coral itself destroyed.
Degradation of Coastal Ecosystems I. Terminology Coastal Zone (CZ)Coastal Zone (CZ): (many: (many defs.) terrestrial area dominated by oceanic.) terrestrial area dominated by oceanic influences & marine aerosols, & marine area where light penetrates throughout (MEA 2005) A. CZ boundaries (MEA 2005) 1. terrestrial/landward a. 2 marine/sea ard2 There are many things that can cause coastal pollution. These causes we are about to learn happen because of natural factors and also factors in human activity. Below are some of the causes of coastal pollution that have occurred in Indonesia. 1. Beach Abrasion. Abrasion, also known as coastal erosion, is the process of shoreline regression. 1. Introduction. Coastal degradation has been widely reported around the world's coasts over the past century, especially in recent decades as discussed later in this chapter , .This degradation can be attributed to the intensification of a wide range of drivers of coastal change that are linked directly and indirectly to an expanding global population and economy Wakes from fast ferries cause shore degradation in sheltered coastal environments . The special wake generated by fast ferries is characterised by a series of approximately 10 relatively low waves (significant wave height below 1 m), but relatively long waves. These wake waves are very similar to swell waves and they are exposed to considerable. The ecological degradation of remaining natural coastal wetlands was defined by surface water quality, which represents a consequence of multiple ecological degradations according to the literature
The most important causes for coral reef degradation are coastal development and excessive exploitation of its resources. Migration towards coasts led to strong development on land, which often lead to destruction of important coastal ecosystems like mangroves and sea grass beds leading cause of deterioration in concrete. When steel corrodes, the resulting rust occupies a greater volume than the steel. This expan-sion creates tensile stresses in the concrete, which can eventually cause cracking, delamination, and spalling (Figs. 1 and 2). Steel corrodes because it is not a naturally occurring material 2 Coastal Erosion: Its Causes, Effects, and Distribution INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses how beaches are formed and factors that determine coastal erosion, stability, or accretion. It also contains a summary of U.S. coastline characteristics, which serves to empha- size the diversity of shore types that must be considered in erosion.
Further, it helps to comparatively identify the nature of the coastal area in Unawatuna. 3. Results and Discussions 3.1 Causes and impacts of coastal erosion and environmental degradation in Unawatuna coastal area. The study found that the primary causes of coastal erosion include both natural processes and human activities 2. _____ Review of Coastal Degradation This Section provides an overview of coastal degradation, a three-dimensional framework for analyzing the environmental effects of coastal tourism, and a summary of the topical focus of references used in this report in terms of the analytical framework for coastal tourism
Physical alteration and destruction of habitats are now considered one of the most important threats to coastal [and marine] areas. This graphic shows the extent to which twelve different human activities cause environmental degradation in estuaries, inter-tidal wetlands and the open ocean. The activities include the drainage of coastal ecosystems; the construction of dykes, dams and seawalls. Causes of Environmental Degradation. Overpopulation and Over-exploitation of Resources; As the human population keeps on enlarging, there is a lot of pressure on the utilization of natural resources. This often causes over-exploitation of the natural resources, and contributes to environmental erosion Coastal wetland degradation severely affects ecological balance and economic and social sustainability. Ecological restoration of degraded wetlands is crucial in research on wetland degradation. A common problem with previous studies is that they use the same tactics and technologies over the whole study area, taking little account of the spatial heterogeneity of wetland degradation
As coastal populations increase, the conversion of open land and forest to urban development and agricultural uses is a significant threat to natural habitats. The below activities can decrease natural areas and threaten remaining habitat by causing increased runoff of sediment, nutrient and chemical pollutants to these areas Coastal Degradation Human actions that lead to the destruction of dune grasses and the disturbance of coastal landforms promote increased erosion and movement of beach materials. Off-road vehicles and foot traffic on sand dunes compact sand, destroying plant roots and animal burrows However, the process of sand mining has accelerated coastal environmental degradation to an alarming rate in many areas. As a result the government has been compelled to spend millions of dollars to combat sea erosion. This paper examines the causes and effects of coastal sand mining in three communities in the Ahanta West District of Ghana Warming coastal waters cause suitable habitats of temperature-sensitive species to shift poleward. Some areas have recently seen range shifts in both warm- and cold-water fish and other marine species. Pollock, halibut, rock sole, and snow crab in Alaska and mangrove trees in Florida are a few of the species whose habitats have already begun to.
Coral reef degradation is a significant problem throughout the world. Currently, 27% of the world's reefs have been affected. The main cause of this sewage leakage is due to the water level elevations in the Keys. overfishing, and coastal development Environmental degradation is an increasing problem in many parts of the world and the type of ecology prevalent in an area plays a major factor that determines the extent of degradation. The study examines causes of environmental degradation in coastal areas of south west Nigeria. It was propelled by environmental challenges, and identified responsible factors in the study area
Land degradation has accelerated during the 20 th and 21 st centuries due to increasing and combined pressures of agricultural and livestock production (over-cultivation, overgrazing, forest conversion), urbanization, deforestation and extreme weather events such as droughts and coastal surges, which salinate land Around the world, agriculture is the leading cause of water degradation. In the United States, and hepatitis from sewage-laden coastal waters, according to EPA estimates Coral reefs serve as natural barriers that protect adjacent shorelines from coastal hazards such as storms, waves, and erosion. Projections indicate global degradation of coral reefs due to anthropogenic impacts and climate change will cause a transition to net erosion by mid-century. Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment of the combined.. Coastal change, cliff retreat, sea level rise, and extreme storms could expose more than 250,000 residents and $50 billion in property to erosion or flooding in Southern California by the end of the century, said Patrick Barnard, a USGS research geologist and co-author of the journal article Moreover, coastal degradation causes more than 13,000 deaths a year, primarily due to floods, air and water pollution. For the first time, there is a consistent approach to estimating the impacts of environmental degradation in West Africa's coastal areas, said Benoît Bosquet, Director for Environmental and Natural Resources Global.
Structures located in coastal areas frequently suffer from corrosion phenomena. Corrosion is the destruction of a material by reaction with its environment and it constitutes one of the basic factors of degradation of reinforced concrete structures The latest report of the Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP), published in coordination with the IAEA, draws on nearly a century's-worth of data to demonstrate the need for regulating pollution in coastal environments to help reverse the destruction of ecosystems.. Coastal ecosystems play a critical role in the global climate and the. For example; shrimp farming in India, Thailand, Ecuador and Indonesia results in Wetland destruction, pollution of coastal waters and degradation of coastal fisheries. Scientific studies have concluded that cost of environmental degradation resulting from shrimp farming was costing more than the earning through shrimp exports. 3. Invasive Species Marine coastal processes eroded and reworked the seaward margins of the deltas forming sandy headlands and barrier beaches. As erosion and degradation continued, segmented low-relief barrier islands formed and eventually were separated from the mainland by shallow bays and lagoons In the following months normal weather and wave patterns may cause sand to be replaced on beaches. Long-term coastal erosion The varying coastline is observed to gradually move landward
Key causes of coral reef decline have been the over-development of the coastal area and the over-use of coral reef resources. Migration to coastal areas has created a surge in land devel-opment leading to clearance of important coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and seagrass beds. Unregulated coastal construction 31 has not typically been a problem. Erosion of coastal areas because of sea level rise will increase 32 worldwide (high confidence). In cyclone prone areas the combination of sea level rise and more 33 intense cyclones will cause land degradation with serious consequences for people and livelihood Ong (1995) considers that burgeoning populations are possibly the biggest cause of mangrove destruction and degradation because they rely heavily on marine habitats and resources for food, building materials, building sites and agricultural and recreational areas. They also use coastal areas as a dumping ground for sewage, garbage and toxic wastes ADVERTISEMENTS: This article throws light upon the three main types of pollution that causes environmental degradation. The types are: 1. Air Pollution 2. Water Pollution 3. Land Pollution. Type of Pollution # 1. Air Pollution: The geosphere or the atmosphere that encircles the earth is of paramount significance. This gaseous blanket acts as a protecting [ As officials assess the damage caused to the Sundarbans mangroves by cyclone Amphan, a new study says the ecologically fragile region in India and Bangladesh has lost 24.55 percent of mangroves (136.77 square km) due to erosion over the past three decades.. Mangrove forests, nature's buffer against disasters, are imperiled by unregulated coastal development, shrinking of deltas and climate.
The degradation of the coastal environment as a result of these developments is too well known to merit a lengthy discussion. Suffice to say that a large part of the degradation in the coastal areas is directly attributable to many of these new 'developments'.What is it about the coastal area that invites people to do all sorts of things to it Journal of Environment and Earth Science www.iiste.org ISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online) Vol.4, No.11, 2014 Wetland Degradation in Ethiopia: Causes, Consequences and Remedies Hagos Gebresllassie*, Temesgen Gashaw and Abraham Mehari Department of Natural Resource Management, Adigrat University, Ethiopia * Corresponding Author: email@example.com Abstract Ethiopia owns more than 58.
A GIS-based methodology for identifying potential causes of degradation and aggradation was developed by the Southern California Coastal Water Re search Project (SCCWRP) entitled Hydromodification Screening Tools: GIS-Based Catchment Analyses of Potential Changes i Coastal wetlands include all wetlands in coastal watersheds—the entire area from which tidal streams drain to the ocean or inland seas. and silt to local rivers. Runoff from hard surfaces like concrete, asphalt, and rooftops is a leading cause of water pollution. Wetlands trap and filter these impurities, maintaining healthy rivers, bays.
Causes of Degradation San Bernardino County Stormwater Program 4 January 28, 2011 Causes of Degradation model complexity and data requirements. Comparing existing GLUs versus those of prior to identified degradation conditions provides evidence for the causes of degradation. For this study a strict GLU analysis was not used This article throws light on the ten major causes for the loss of biodiversity, i.e, (1) Destruction of Habitat, (2) Hunting, (3) Exploitation of Selected Species, (4) Habitat Fragmentation, (5) Collection for Zoo and Research, (6) Introduction of Exotic Species, (7) Pollution, (8) Control of Pests and Predators, (9) Natural Calamities, and (10) Other Factors
degradation, beach erosion, and potential losses of tourism revenue in Jamaica. We then assess the economic contribu-tion of coral reef-associated fisheries. Finally, we examine the role of coral reefs in reducing coastal flooding during storms. Tourism, fisheries, and shoreline protection are just thre Land degradation is both a cause and effect of rural poverty and vulnerability. Poor rural households in developing countries suffer disproportionately from land degradation, the direct effects of which include losses in soil organic content, nutrients and water storage and regulation, which in turn lead to a loss of productive capacity and wildlife habitat
Overall, the causes of deterioration of the Sundarban mangrove forest ecosystem could be classified into: Anthropogenic; Natural; Other (or miscellaneous) Importance of Mangroves in maintaining coastal ecology: Basis of a complex marine food chain. Creation of breeding habitat for birds and water animals Introduction. During the course of the Twentieth century, increases in anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to coastal ecosystems via river discharge to coastal ecosystems became the primary cause of eutrophication and consequent ecosystem degradation in coastal ecosystems worldwide (Rabalais et al., 2009, 2010; Paerl et al., 2014), a trend that is arguably the most. 1.6 causes of ecosystem degradation and natural resource loss in coastal areas Ecosystem and natural resource damage in coastal areas, and hence reduced environmental goods and services, stem from increasing demands on resources (especially local demand arising from demographic pressure) and unsustainable management practices Coastal development is a significant cause of coral reef degradation in areas where reefs are present near tropical beach resorts or commercial seaports. The excavation of coastal land for hotels and other tourist facilities, as well as dredging and the removal of mangroves or seagrass beds to facilitate boat access result in particulate matter.
Land degradation affects people and ecosystems throughout the planet and is both affected by climate change and contributes to it. In this report, land degradation is defined as a negative trend in land condition, caused by direct or indirect human-induced processes including anthropogenic climate change, expressed as long-term reduction or loss of at least one of the following: biological. Ecological degradation can have serious effects on many animals, plants and also for humanity. Thus, in order to prevent these adverse consequences, we should take several measures in our daily life. In the following, the types, causes, effects and solutions for environmental degradation are examined A general progression of environmental degradation accompanies this system of growth, creating ecological crises in the conditions of life. The most recent changes to coastal ecosystems caused by overfishing involve microbial population explosions. The microbial loop has been found to be more sophisticated and complex than ever expected
Land degradation is a natural and socioeconomic cause-effect phenomenon that is widespread all over the world. This study investigated the socioeconomic factors and causes of land degradation (e.g. population growth and urbanization, poverty, overgrazing, pollution, biodiversity, erosion) in the eastern part of the Mediterranean region While habitat degradation can be caused by both local impacts (e.g. from the use Indonesia's national Decentralization Law 22/1999, in conjunc- of destructive ﬁshing gears) and larger-scale factors (such as tion with Law 32/2004, the Fisheries Law (31/2004) and Coastal climate change), this study focuses on policy interventions aimed Zone. in environmental degradation and resource depletion as elaborated below: - Coastal Erosion Malaysia was facing increasingly serious coastal erosion problem and in response to it, the National Coastal Erosion Study was carried out in 1984 under the auspice of EP
Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land. It is viewed as any change or disturbance to the land perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Natural hazards are excluded as a cause; however human activities can indirectly affect phenomena such as floods and bush fires Sea level rise: main causes. To find the source of this threat it is necessary to focus on global warming caused by climate change, which causes sea level rise in three different ways: The first is the thermal expansion: water, when heated by temperature rise, tends to expand, ie, oceans take up more space Clean Coastal Waters explains technical aspects of nutrient over-enrichment and proposes both immediate local action by coastal managers and a longer-term national strategy incorporating policy design, classification of affected sites, law and regulation, coordination, and communication Steel corrosion is the process of degradation of steel reinforcement due to the chemical or electrochemical reaction in concrete occurring due to manual or environmental action. Here the iron i.e. Fe get oxidized to iron oxide FeO or Fe 2 O 3 forming a film of scale around the bar causing expansion of bar, which ultimately creates cracks in.
Water pollution is continuing to cause millions of preventable deaths every year, especially among children. Population pressures are increasing land degradation due to poor land management, thus worsening soil erosion and sediment transport in downstream areas. coastal, and marine environments as a management continuum Coastal and mangrove deforestation and degradation Coastal deforestation, the degradation of coastal and mangrove forests and the loss of coastal and mangrove biodiversity is a serious problem throughout the Pacific. The major causes are conversion or reclamation of coastal vegetation and mangroves for other, often agricultural, urban or. Land degradation and productivity: A major shortcoming of the available statistics on land degradation is the lack of cause-effect relationship between severity of degradation and productivity. Criteria for designating different classes of land degradation (e.g. low, moderate, high) are generally based on land properties rather than their. Coastal wetlands are closely linked with estuaries, where sea water and fresh water mix. Other causes of loss or degradation have been mining, clear cutting, road construction, streamflow regulation, and invasion by nonnative plants. Back to list of Southwest States. Oklahoma. Wetlands cover about 950,000 acres (2 percent) of Oklahoma. The population explosion has created pressure on forest land and resources, and this causes deforestation. Deforestation accentuates soil erosion (soil degradation). Roots of trees and plants bind the soil particles and regulate the flow of water, thus saving soil from erosion. Deforestation makes soil vulnerable to wind and water erosion
Cause # 1. Degradation of Land: Sewage waste and industrial effluents flow into lakes, canals, rivers, coastal areas and underground water sources. Thus, in turn destroy the entire system. The polluted and untreated water causes water borne diseases like diarrhoea, hepatitis, gastro-enteritis, trachoma, etc. Moreover, providing safe. Currently, the town's only defenses against coastal erosion are sandbags and gravel. Millions of dollars have been spent in Barrow alone to reduce the coastal erosion, said Xiao Cars and other vehicles release pollution into the air, which only causes the slow, deadly process of environment degradation to speed up, and cut our time on this planet even shorter. Not only would the air be so much cleaner if we all chose green transportation, such as bike riding to get to where we all need to go throughout the day, but. The first occurs in coastal regions as a result of inundations from the sea. The second type of most common form of land degradation and, therefore, a major cause of falling productivity. However, since the effects of soil loss vary depending on the underlying soil type, soi
[toc] Coastal erosion and shoreline recession from sea-level rise is a significant risk to coastal Australia. Individuals, businesses and local governments undertake coastal risk assessments to understand how they might be affected now and in the future. Coastal erosion in Scotts Head, New South Wales The Coastal Compartments Project aims to help users undertake or commissio The widespread degradation of intermittently closed and open lakes and lagoons (ICOLLs) is a serious local and national problem. Major causes are elevated nutrients, sedimentation, pollution, inappropriate coastal development, flood mitigation and overfishing The degradation of the vegetation leads to the removal of said layer. When degraded, direct exposure to the sun, wind and even heavy rain can damage the soil. Other causes of erosion include flooding or farming practices. Soil that has been impacted by erosion, in most cases tends to be unusable . Naturally occurring, iron-sulphides underlie large areas of Australia's low-lying coastal areas. When these normally waterlogged soils are exposed to air by drainage or drought, the iron sulphides oxidise produc-ing acids which can then leach into marine or estuarin
Soil compaction, low organic matter, loss of soil structure, poor internal drainage, salinisation and soil acidity problems are other serious soil degradation conditions that can accelerate the soil erosion process Since aquaculture activities cause the degradation of both coastal and terrestrial habitats by using intensified feeds and facilities, the correlation between aquaculture and habitat risks is not significant . The coastal fishery of South Korea largely divides into two categories: adjacent waters fisheries and shallow sea cultures Most of these farmers came from the Andes and coastal regions of the country, where they were faced with landlessness, unemployment, and land degradation. Migration was strongly encouraged by the Ecuadorian Government, with a provision for land titles if they could prove they were turning it to useful land According to Empretec Mauritius, the tourism industry has undoubtedly contributed to the degradation of coastal and marine environment. The actions of the tourism industry have a close relationship with the coastal and marine resources and are heavily dependent on coastal and marine resources Coastal communities are already familiar with the risks of living on the coast, which include cyclones, erosion, and storm surges. Although we already experience these coastal events, they are expected to increase in frequency and intensity as a result of global warming In their Report Global trajectories of the long-term decline of coral reef ecosystems (15 Aug., p. ), J. M. Pandolfi et al. advocate a novel interpretation of the timing and causes of the worldwide decline of reef-building corals. Expanding on an earlier paper (), they conclude that corals have been in decline for centuries and that overfishing was the leading cause. They.