Cold War in Southeast Asia

The Southeast Asia War: Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia

  1. A product of the Cold War, the Southeast Asia War (1961-1973) began with communist attempts to overthrow non-communist governments in the region. United States participation in the Southeast Asia War resulted from the policy of containment, which aimed to prevent communism from expanding beyond its early Cold War borders
  2. Well before the emergence of the global Cold War, Southeast Asia had its own Cold War, with antecedents in colonial times. What is remarkable about the story presented in Southeast Asia's Cold War is that with ASEAN there was a regional response to the Cold War that has outlived the conflict to become a structure of regional security that.
  3. The Cold War Page 5 - South-East Asia. The octopus of Chinese communism (Te Ara) Decolonisation. During the 1950s the focus of New Zealand's defence strategy shifted from the Middle East to Asia. The Second World War had left this region in a state of flux. Japan's wartime occupation of European and United States colonies in Asia had.

THE BEGINNINGS OF A 'COLD WAR' IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 545 commission for Southeast Asia, as much to counter US intervention as facilitate administration.5 With the end of the war in the Pacific in August 1945, Britain's South East Asian Command under Louis Mountbatten was tasked by the allied nations with reoccupying all colonial Southeast Asia This chapter examines the history of the Cold War in Southeast Asia. It explains that the onset of the Cold War coincided with nationalist struggles and decolonization, and explains why Southeast Asians should appreciate that the Cold War is a historical event which has significantly affected the development of their countries, particularly in terms of the role of the Cold War in shaping the. Taiwan's Cold War in Southeast Asia by Hsiao-ting Lin. April 2016. In the 1970s, as the Cold War gradually transformed into détente owing to the general easing of tensions between Washington and Moscow and between Washington and Beijing, the status of the Taiwan-based Republic of China (ROC), along with the political legitimacy of the ruling. the origins of the cold war in southeast asia: the case of the communist party of malaya (1948-1960) - a special branch perspective January 2009 Kajian Malaysia 27(1-2 Cold War Southeast Asia Timeline created by lisagiraffe. In History. Mar 1, 1954. Viet Minh defeats French troops and takes control of North Vietnam In March 1954, Viet Minh, a Communist and Nationalist army, defeated French troops. This caused them to withdraw from French Indochina, and then the region consisted of four different countries.

A Special Issue of the Cold War International History Project Bulletin. Just as the outbreak of the Cold War in Europe after WWII forced Western European leaders to rethink their security and their places in the world, so too did the arrival of the Cold War to Asia force South and Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is becoming featured more prominently in studies of the Cold War, however, existing works tend to reinforce traditional approaches to its study. Theorizing the conflict in the region overturns established understandings, and reconceptualize the Southeast Asian Cold War, as a major and not peripheral part of the global conflict. This panel brings together.

patterns on events, see Nicholas Tarling, Britain, Southeast Asia and the onset of the Cold War, 1945-1950 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989). 2 Ruth McVey, The Calcutta Conference and the South-East Asia uprisings (Ithaca, New York: Cornell University, 1958). 3 Ibid., p. 24 The war in Southeast Asia Cold War assumptions and the quagmire. As the Vietnam War began to recede into the past, the entire episode, from a neutral perspective, increasingly came to seem incredible. That the most powerful and wealthy nation on earth should undertake 15 years of wasting conflict against a tiny state 10,000 miles from its shores—and lose—almost justifies the historian Paul.

Laos, and Cambodia.As the Cold War ended, the United States shifted its strategic focus in Southeast Asia from security to economic issues. Free trade was the overriding goal of the George H. W. Bush administration (1989-1993) The cold war and the US anti-communism had significant role on the development of world history between 1960s and 2000. While the role of both the cold war and the western-anticommunism were observed in almost every part of the world, especially in Asia, South America, Eastern Europe and to some extent Africa, it is clear that South-eastern Asia is one of the regions of the world where the two. The Cold War was a period of intense conflict across Southeast Asia, marked by a bloody mix of interstate conflicts, civil wars, displacement, and genocides. The disastrous tally of human suffering and lives wasted have led many to argue that the term Cold War is itself a misnomer in the region

The New Look Policy in Southeast Asia. President Dwight D. Eisenhower entered office at a peak period of Cold War tension between the United States and nations in Southeast Asia. Eisenhower. The historiography of the Cold War has long been dominated by American motivations and concerns, with Southeast Asian perspectives largely confined to the Indochina wars and Indonesia under Sukarno. Southeast Asia's Cold War corrects this situation by examining the international politics of the region from within rather than without. It provides an up-to-date, coherent narrativ

Southeast Asia's Cold War: An Interpretive History

  1. With the Cold War ending, the South China Sea issue emerged to become a more salient security issue between China and Southeast Asia, especially between claimant states. Still, throughout the first two decades of the post-Cold War era, security no longer was the most important factor influencing China's relations with Southeast Asian countries
  2. Containment Policy and the First Indochina War (1945-1954)The political and strategic foundation of Cold War-period international relations in Southeast Asia was 'containment' of communism by the USA, a strategy most famously spelled out in George Kennan's 1947 'Mr. X' article in the Journal of Foreign Affairs. 23 For example, Indonesia in 1945.
  3. es the origins and conflicts associated with the Cold War in Asia.In this special issue, the authors collectively exa
  4. 1. Michael Klare, The Cold War Redux? Asia Times Online, June 3, 2013, www.atimes.com. 2. Richard Sakwa, The Cold Peace: Russo-Western Relations as a Mimetic Cold War, Cambridge Review of International Affairs 26, no. 1 (2013): 203-224; Yan Xuetong and Qi Haxia, Football Game Rather than Boxing Match: China-US Intensifying Rivalry Does not Amount to Cold War, Chinese Journal.

The Cold War was a period of intense conflict across Southeast Asia, marked by a bloody mix of interstate conflicts, civil wars, displacement, and genocides. The disastrous tally of human suffering and lives wasted have led many to argue that the term Cold War is itself a misnome Book Description: The groundbreaking account of U.S. clandestine efforts to use Southeast Asian Buddhism to advance Washington's anticommunist goals during the Cold WarHow did the U.S. government make use of a Buddhist policy in Southeast Asia during the Cold War despite the American principle that the state should not meddle with religion

South-East Asia - The Cold War NZHistory, New Zealand

Roundtable-XX-39 4 | Page is entitled Southeast Asia after the Cold War: Order and Regionalism, which is the sequel to Southeast Asia's Cold War.He is presently working on a new book entitled SEATO: A History. Brad Simpson (Ph.D., Northwestern) is an Associate Professor of History at the University of Connecticut. He is the author of Economists with Guns: Authoritarian Development and US. The idea of cold war was adopted by South Asia's most powerful countries including Pakistan, India and China. Cold War of the past between two major superpowers was known to be very dangerous, yet undoubtedly, the multiparty cold war between these three South Asian countries may cause greater danger for security and strategic environment in. The Cold War and National Assertion in Southeast Asia, p. 81. 5 Lau, Albert. Southeast Asia and the Cold War, p. 2. 6 Lau,p. 4 7 Foley,p. 81. Congress authorizing half a billion dollars for military assistance to the Far East, a major part of which was intended for the war against the Vietminh in Indochina. 8 US policy makers also began to. The Cold War in Asia and the Middle East. While seeking to prevent communist ideology from gaining further adherents in Europe, the United States also responded to challenges elsewhere. In China, Americans worried about the advances of Mao Zedong and his communist party. During World War II, the Nationalist government under Chiang Kai-shek and. Cold War in Southeast Asia evolved the way it did and offers a deeper understanding of the Southeast Asia we know today. Cold War Southeast Asia-Malcolm H. Murfett 2012-07-16 As World War II came to an end, a period of distrust settled over the world. Southeast Asia was no different. The spectre of Communism stalked the stage

The Cold War Relation To Asia And The Cold War 1823 Words | 8 Pages. When looking at the Cold War in general or in relation to Asia, it is important to understand that a conflict lasting a long period may go through changes, especially in the case of the Cold War Outcomes and context of the cold war in East Asia. The Cold War era, specifically 1947-1991, changed how the East Asian states related to the international community. This era involved militarily, politically, ideologically, and economically opposed factions led by the USSR and the US How was the Cold War waged in Southeast Asia,the middle East, and Latin America during the 1950s? Southeast Asia - July 1953 Korean War brought to end (death of Stalin). Vietnam divided US provided aid to South Vietna

The Cold War is a perfect example, with the story of the Western or European Cold War the dominant narrative over what was a hot war in Southeast Asia. Since the dominant narratives or popular conception of wars past determines how wars are perceived in the future, it becomes all the more important to look deeper into even recent history. Question 1: Cold War in South East Asia. After the defeat of the Japanese by the Americans during the Second World War, a power vacuum was created; perhaps the phenomenon led to the rise of the cold war. Because the communist interest in Spain emerged, the United States were determined to prevent the communist occupation of Vietnam

The Beginnings of a 'Cold War' in Southeast Asia: British

Cold War Southeast Asia - Ebook written by Malcolm H. Murfett. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Cold War Southeast Asia The Cold War was anything but cold in Asia, let alone Southeast Asia. President Richard Nixon once remarked that the Cold War isn't thawing; it is burning with a deadly heat. Hot wars were commonplace in Asia during this time; from conflict in former French Indochina to insurgencies in the Coral Triangle, Southeast Asia was a. Southeast Asia's Cold War corrects this situation by examining the international politics of the region from within rather than without. It provides an up-to-date, coherent narrative of the Cold War as it played out in Southeast Asia against a backdrop of superpower rivalry

Cold War in Southeast Asia - Oxford Handbook

Taiwan's Cold War in Southeast Asia Wilson Cente

(Pdf) the Origins of The Cold War in Southeast Asia: the

The origins and the key defining moments of the Cold War in Southeast Asia have been widely debated. This book focuses on an area that has received less attention, the impact and legacy of the Cold War on the various countries in the region, as well as on the region itself The Cold War resulted from there ideological difference and was until 1948 primarily based in Europe. When the Cold War suddenly expanded into Asia in 1949, it was a great surprise to everyone. At the end of World War II Asia had been left in a power vacuum Japans defeat had ended a dominate empire in northeast Asia

After the end of World War II, all the Western allies began a rapid drawdown of military forces, including those of signals intelligence.At the time, the US still had a COMINT organization split between the Army and Navy. A 1946 plan listed Russia, China, and a [redacted] country as high-priority targets Russia has been more successful in increasing its security ties with some of the countries in Southeast Asia. It has succeeded, for example, in establishing a close security relationship with Vietnam, its long-time Cold War ally The return of Allied powers to Southeast Asia after the war led to anti-colonialism in Vietnam and Malaya in 1948; the civil war in China in 1949; and by 1950 the two Korean political systems were at war with each other. All these events caused the United States to reconsider Thailand as an ally to contain the spread of communism in Asia

Cold War Southeast Asia timeline Timetoast timeline

  1. More specifically, these two nations provide us with a comparative model for discussions of colonialism, Cold War politics, genocide, peacekeeping, nation building, and international justice. By considering the development of my unit on the Cold War in Southeast Asia, this brief essay discusses the ways in which a survey course can utilize a.
  2. A reference has been made to some developments within and between Asian countries in the context of the Cold War. ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), comprising six countries of Southeast Asia— Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, the Philippines, Brunei and Indonesia—was set up in 1967
  3. ates the global ramifications of the Cold War, and the makings of the world order as we know it today
  4. Buddhism, particularly in Indochina began to affect the political structure beginning in the 8th to 9th centuries. Islamic ideas arrived in insular Southeast Asia as early as the 8th century, where the first Muslim societies emerged by the 13th century.. The era of European colonialism, early Modernity and the Cold War era revealed the reality of limited political significance for the various.
  5. He pledges Cambodia's neutrality as the Cold War escalates in Southeast Asia. However, the United States wants to use Cambodia as a buffer against North Vietnam and Communist influences in the.

South and Southeast Asian Views of the Cold War (1945-1991

The Cold War division emerged in Southeast Asia. 6 Nov 2017 IR of Southeast Asia 5 The Bandung Principles and Nonalignment The Bandung Principles Adopted at the Bandung Conference in 1955 Themes: anti-imperialism and peaceful coexistence Key principles: respect for territorial integrity and sovereignty The Cold War in Southeast Asia was a many-faceted conflict, driven by regional historical imperatives as much as by the contest between global superpowers. The essays in this book offer the most detailed and probing examination to date of the cultural dimension of the Cold War in Southeast Asia. Southeast Asian culture from the late 1940s to. This is a list of wars and conflicts in Asia, particularly East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and Russia.For a list of conflicts in Southwest Asia, Asia Pacific. see List of conflicts in the Near East for historical conflicts and List of conflicts in the Middle East, List of conflicts in Australia (related Asia Pacific) for contemporary conflicts

Theorizing the Cold War in Southeast Asia: Approaches and

  1. o theory. The do
  2. Cambodia's government by now recognizes that it is in the middle of a geopolitical tug-of-war between the US and China, a contest for influence some see as an emerging new Cold War in Southeast Asia
  3. the post-Cold War period. Southeast Asia's renewed security priority became most visible in joint military exercises and the stationing of U.S. troops in the Philippines, the conclusion of a Mutual Logistics Support Agreement with Manila in November 2002, the stepping up o
  4. Pact, reinforced (1955-77) by the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). Only the Whitlam government chafed at the alliance, and then but in part. Australia followed the United States' lead in such crises as the Korean (1950-53) and Vietnam (1955-75) wars and, a generation later, the Persian Gulf War (1990-91). Australi

The origins of the Southeast Asian Cold Wa

Cold War Monks is a pathbreaking study of how Thai Buddhists interacted with American attempts to use their church in the war on communism in Southeast Asia and how Buddhists transformed their faith, indeed their country, in so doing. Superbly researched and brilliantly argued, it places Thailand in the broader sweep of international history. Secularism, Decolonisation, and the Cold War in South and Southeast Asia is a compelling and ambitious book by Clemens Six that proposes to shift the study of secularism from the margins of global history to the centre. In the process, it recasts our understanding of secularism from a Western-oriented, constitutional, or legal, practice of separating the state from religious affairs—and vice. In a recent chat with Asia Society, Kurlantzick, a Fellow for Southeast Asia at the Council on Foreign Relations, discussed the origins of Operation Momentum, its connection to the Vietnam War, and how a tiny Southeast Asian came to occupy so much of America's foreign policy attention. The interview has been lightly edited for length and clarity Cold War Southeast Asia in doing so not only offers a panoramic account of a turning point in SEA history, but also illuminates the global ramifications of the Cold War, and the makings of the world order as we know it today. Seller Inventory # AAJ9789814382144 Millones de Productos que Comprar! Envío Gratis en Productos Participantes

The war in Southeast Asia - Britannic

Cold War in Southeast Asia . November 27, 2017 Cambodian Treason Case Highlights Cold War Rivalries By Ben Paviour. The case against Kem Sokha and the CNRP hearkens back to rivalries forged during. During this period of Cold War struggles, many of t he traffitional animosities in Southeast Asia were temporarily suspended in the name of political cooperation.1he ultra-nationalistic Khmer. If Vietnam became Communist, domino-theory logic held that all of Indochina, and perhaps even all of Southeast Asia, might become Communist. Well aware of the popularity of Ho Chi Minh and his Viet Minh associates in both North and South Vietnam, U.S. leaders feared that the free elections promised at the Geneva Conference, which were scheduled. Southeast Asia's Cold War corrects this situation by examining the international politics of the region from within rather than without. It provides an up-to-date, coherent narrative of the Cold War as it played out in Southeast Asia against a backdrop of superpower rivalry. When viewed through a Southeast Asian lens, the Cold War can be.

The Korean War. Cold War tensions between the United States and the USSR eventually exploded in Korea when Soviet-backed North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950. Determined not to let Communism spread in East Asia, Truman quadrupled military spending and ordered General MacArthur to retake the southern half of the peninsula Download Southeast Asia After The Cold War books, International politics in Southeast Asia since end of the Cold War in 1990 can be understood within the frames of order and an emerging regionalism embodied in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). But order and regionalism are now under siege, with a new global strategic. Answer: Cold War policies in Southeast Asia are best illustrated by C) the United States' support of South Vietnam. Explanation: The Cold War began after WWII and ended with the fall of the Berlin Wall.It involved two superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union, each of them with its allies 1. When did most nations in Southeast Asia gain independence from European powers? A. after the Cold War B.during the Japanese occupation C.before World War II D.during the Vietnam War* 2. Drag and drop events in Indochina leading up to the Vietnam War. Put them in the correct order from the most distant past (at the top) to the most recent (at the bottom). A. France fights communist forces in. Southeast Asia's Cold War: An Interpretive History. By Ang Cheng Guan. (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai'i Press, 2018. Pp. xii, 306. $68.00.) This book's purpose is to fill the historiographical gap in the study of the Cold War in Southeast Asia by providing a general political history of the Cold War in Southeast Asia (3)

U.S. Policy Towards Southeast Asia American Diplomacy ..

The Cold War in Europe and Asia - A comparison Posted on October 12, 2012 by JL Admin The aftermath of the Second World War saw the formation of a bi-polar world, with the United States and the Soviet Union dominating their respective hemispheres It affected Asia to a great extent. The Korean War happened and the peninsula was divided into two halves - 1. Communist North Korea that kept Americans off the border of communist giants : China & USSR 2. South Korea, which lagged behind behind N..

Cold War's Impact on the Southeast Asia - 842 Words

The Cold War, Bipolarity Structure and the Power Vacuum in the East and South East Asia after 1945 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd. Noor Mat Yazid1 Abstract This paper discusses the origin of the Cold War, the creation of the new polarity after Second World War and the political development in the East and South East Asian region Poland and the Cold War in East and Southeast Asia, 1949-1965 by Margaret K. Gnoinska B.A. May 1994, Middlebury College M.A. May 2002, The George Washington University A Disserta In Southeast Asia After the Cold War, Ang Cheng Guan using Carr as inspiration looks at ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations), an intergovernmental organization caught between China and the old, creaking superpower, the USA. Can ASEAN with the help of diplomacy and trade deals strike a balance between the two powers in the region or is.

THE END OF THE COLD WAR AND THE CRISIS IN ASIA infected the other links in a chain reaction of growing force. The Southeast Asian nations are intimately linked together, but they are also competitors in the global marketplace, particularly for sales to the United States, Japan, and the European NATO countries where the much needed hard. Deploying global numerical data on US foreign aid and comparative historical analysis of America's post-Cold War foreign policies in Southeast Asia, Aid Imperium provides the most comprehensive explanation that links US strategic assistance to physical integrity rights outcomes in recipient countries, particularly in ways that previous. THE COLD WAR IN SOUTHEAST ASIA: VIETNAM CONFLICT DR. ABDUL ZAHOOR KHAN Assistant Professor Social Sciences Department, Iqra University Islamabad campus, H-9, Islamabad, Pakistan E-mail: drzahoor@iqraisb.edu.pk Abstract Subsequent to the recapturing of Indochina by the French next to the end of World War-2, the locale havin The Cold War stayed cold in Europe but it was hot in Asia. Its legacy lives on in the region. In none of the three dominant historiographical paradigms: orthodox, revisionist and post-revisionist, does Asia, or the rest of the Third World, figure with much significance Secularism, Decolonisation, and the Cold War in South and Southeast Asia . DOI link for Secularism, Decolonisation, and the Cold War in South and Southeast Asia. Secularism, Decolonisation, and the Cold War in South and Southeast Asia book. By Clemens Six. Edition 1st Edition. First Published 2017. eBook Published 20 July 2017

The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was a military alliance created to defend Southeast Asia against communist aggression and subversion during the Cold War. SEATO was the organization formed in 1955 to implement the Southeast Asia Collective Defence Treaty, also known as the Manila Pact, signed in Manila in September 1954 Post-war Southeast Asia witnessed widespread political, social and economic unrest, but most of the population did not identify with their class in IJCS v6n3 combined text 16-11-15.indb 212 16/11. From the 1950s to the 1980s, ideology was a primary engine of inter-state conflict in the region, but in the post-Cold War era, there has arisen a new nationalism in Southeast Asia, centering on issues of national pride, territorial integrity, and national sovereignty Southeast Asia's darker tourist attractions supply insight and shivers in equal doses. where sights that chronicle the Vietnam War and the 2004 Asian tsunami, the rise of colonialism and the. by Ang Cheng Guan International politics in Southeast Asia since end of the Cold War in 1990 can be understood within the frames of order and an emerging regionalism embodied in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). But order and regionalism are now under siege, with a new global strategic rebalancing un

The Asia-Pacific and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) were no exception. Of the many changes since the end of the Cold War, three bear specific mention. First, the freeze in relationships amongst the nations of the region thawed, allowing ASEAN to be reshaped and enlarged First presented in 2009 at a conference on the Cold War in Southeast Asia organized by Associate Professor Albert Lau, Department of History, National University of Singapore, the twelve papers in this collection draw on archival sources to throw light on the significance of the 'Cold War' as a category of Southeast Asian history President Dwight D. Eisenhower coins one of the most famous Cold War phrases when he suggests the fall of French Indochina to the communists could create a domino effect in Southeast Asia. The last time the U.S. slugged it out with another superpower, during the Cold War with the Soviet Union, it was the region that suffered — the war in Vietnam, the bombings of Laos and Cambodia.

Call of Duty: Black Ops Cold War Season One Content MapDavid Shambaugh: Where Great Powers Meet, America andCall of Duty: Black Ops Cold War Multiplayer Beta DetailsThe Domino Theory Cold War Explained - HRFWhat Was the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization? | Study

In the post-cold war period, the region has witnessed at least three democratic milestones: first, in 1986, when the People Power Revolution in the Philippines led to the toppling of the Marcos regime and the rise of a new democratic government under Cory Aquino. Second, in 1998, when the resignation of Indonesia's Former President Soeharto ended the 3 decade-long authoritarian government. O ver the past two years Chinese communists have devoted increasing attention to extending their influence in the Buddhist countries of Southeast Asia, reads an United States government report from 1957. To counter that influence, Eugene Ford writes in Cold War Monks, the US developed a strategy of considerable guile, sophistication, and determination, a funneling of significant. After World War II, many countries were concerned about the spread of communism around the world. And so, in 1955, eight countries formed the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, or SEATO The focus of the cold war in Asia soon shifted to the southeast. China supported insurgent guerrillas in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia; the United States, on the other side, played a leading role in the formation of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization and provided large-scale military aid, but guerrilla warfare continued Around the time that ASEAN was established, Southeast Asia was a major battleground of the original Cold War. ASEAN aligned with the Western bloc, siding with capitalism against communism

  • Pokemon Platinum egg hatch code.
  • 3 lbs dried nuts to grams.
  • Sermon on indecent dressing.
  • Is 4 months too old to get a puppy.
  • Kim Possible phone.
  • Charlotte Tilbury red lipstick.
  • R alpha lipoic acid reviews.
  • How to clean snorkel mask.
  • George Gallup.
  • Kaitlib Fe alternatives.
  • Paysafe Mastercard.
  • Dulles Expo Center capacity.
  • Bones Booth shot.
  • Artificial Tears Eye Drops Walmart.
  • How clean does a head gasket surface need to be.
  • Frozen calamari Steaks near me.
  • Role of technology in accounting.
  • EBay bidding rules last minute.
  • America the land of the free and the home of the brave.
  • Frankenmuth big Block Party.
  • Persistent cookies security risk.
  • Skyrim assassin build.
  • Blue Haldex controller Gen 1.
  • Kefir sleep.
  • How to calibrate Guitar Hero Live.
  • Spartan workout at home.
  • Names of drips.
  • RSA Authentication.
  • Drop dead gorgeous in a sentence.
  • Skinnytaste Meatloaf and brown gravy.
  • Latin curse tablets.
  • Homemade wood stain remover.
  • Microsoft wireless notebook optical mouse 3000 wont connect.
  • Phenice pronunciation Bible.
  • Goofy How to Play Golf.
  • Homeostatic theory of obesity.
  • Plumbing apprenticeship jobs.
  • How were farmers and banks connected in the 1930s?.
  • What song defines your life.
  • Ding How 1.
  • Digital divide thesis.